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Several hypotheses have been proposed attempting to explain the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease including, among others, theories involving amyloid deposition, tau phosphorylation, oxidative stress, metal ion dysregulation and inflammation. While there is strong evidence suggesting that each one of these proposed mechanisms contributes to disease(More)
The search for a definitive gender bias in Alzheimer's disease has resulted in a multitude of epidemiological findings that point to a higher prevalence and incidence of Alzheimer's disease in women. Due to this reported predisposition of women to Alzheimer's disease, the sex steroid estrogen has become the primary focus of research in this field, however,(More)
Based on epidemiological and observational studies, estrogen and hormone-replacement therapy were until recently viewed as major factors in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, a recent randomized clinical trial revealed that hormone replacement therapy using estrogen plus progestin may actually exacerbate the incidence of dementia when(More)
Oxidative modifications are a hallmark of oxidative imbalance in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion diseases and their respective animal models. While the causes of oxidative stress are relatively well-documented, the effects of chronically reducing oxidative stress on cognition, pathology and biochemistry require further(More)
Until recently, the study of hormonal influences in Alzheimer disease was limited to the role of sex steroids. Despite numerous epidemiological studies supporting a protective role for estrogen in Alzheimer disease, recent studies show that estrogen administration in elderly women increases the risk of disease. Reconciling these contradictory reports, we(More)
Questions surrounding estrogen therapy for post-menopausal cognitive decline and dementia led us to examine the role of luteinizing hormone that becomes elevated after menopause. We examined hippocampal-associated cognitive performance, as measured with the Y-maze task, in two strains of transgenic mice, one (Tg-LHbeta) which over-expresses luteinizing(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine whether local administration of endothelin induces the release of dopamine in the rat striatum and to characterize and localize endothelin receptors in this brain region. Local injection of endothelin-1 (10 pmol) into the ventral striatum of urethane-anaesthetized rats caused an increase of 8 microM in the(More)
The re-expression of multiple cell cycle markers representing various cell cycle phases in postmitotic pyramidal neurons suggests that neurons in Alzheimer disease (AD) attempt to re-enter the cell cycle. Entry into the cell cycle requires activation of G1 to S phase cell cycle proteins, among which retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is a key regulator. pRb(More)
While there is ample experimental evidence supporting the role of estrogen in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, recent inconclusive data regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT), specifically, the unexpected results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Memory Study has raised serious questions regarding the protective effects of estrogen. Because(More)
Several hypotheses have been proposed that attempt to explain the pathogenesis of Alzheimer Disease (AD) including theories involving senile plaque and neurofibrillary tangle formation, increased oxidative stress, and cell cycle abnormalities, since evidence for each of these pathological phenomena have been well documented in AD. Recent epidemiological and(More)