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All three forms of recombinant low voltage-activated T-type Ca(2)(+) channels (Ca(v)3.1, Ca(v)3.2 and Ca(v)3.3) exhibit a small, though clearly evident, window T-type Ca(2)(+) current (I(Twindow)) which is also present in native channels from different neuronal types. In thalamocortical (TC) and nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT) neurones, and possibly in(More)
Spikelets, or fast prepotentials as they are frequently referred to, are a common feature of the electrophysiology of central neurones and are invariably correlated with the presence of electrotonic coupling via gap junctions. Here we report that in the presence of the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists, trans-ACPD or DHPG, thalamocortical neurones of(More)
During deep sleep and anesthesia, the EEG of humans and animals exhibits a distinctive slow (<1 Hz) rhythm. In inhibitory neurons of the nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT), this rhythm is reflected as a slow (<1 Hz) oscillation of the membrane potential comprising stereotypical, recurring "up" and "down" states. Here we show that reducing the leak current(More)
In relaxed wakefulness, the EEG exhibits robust rhythms in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), which decelerate to theta (approximately 2-7 Hz) frequencies during early sleep. In animal models, these rhythms occur coherently with synchronized activity in the thalamus. However, the mechanisms of this thalamic activity are unknown. Here we show that, in slices of the(More)
1 species, these somatosensory rhythms occur synchronously with rhythmic bursting in thalamic neurons (Bou-2 Research Group of Neurobiology aging (fMRI), which show a correlation between EEG ␣ band power and thalamic metabolic activity (Larson et Hungarian Academy of Sciences Pá zmá ny P. Budapest Hungary During drowsiness, a scenario which is considered to(More)
The slow (<1 Hz) rhythm is an electroencephalogram hallmark of resting sleep. In thalamocortical neurons this rhythm correlates with a slow (<1 Hz) oscillation comprising recurring UP and DOWN membrane potential states. Recently, we showed that metabotropic glutamate receptor activation brings about an intrinsic slow oscillation in thalamocortical neurons(More)
The slow (<1 Hz) rhythm is a defining feature of the electroencephalogram during sleep. Since cortical circuits can generate this rhythm in isolation, it is assumed that the accompanying slow oscillation in thalamocortical (TC) neurons is largely a passive reflection of neocortical activity. Here we show, however, that by activating the metabotropic(More)
BACKGROUND Critics of air ambulance doctors question their contribution and believe on-scene time is prolonged. Two helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) models operate in the West Midlands, one with doctors and the other without. A study was undertaken to compare on-scene time, management and decision-making between the two units. METHOD Cases were(More)
Although EEG alpha (α; 8-13 Hz) rhythms are often considered to reflect an "idling" brain state, numerous studies indicate that they are also related to many aspects of perception. Recently, we outlined a potential cellular substrate by which such aspects of perception might be linked to basic α rhythm mechanisms. This scheme relies on a specialized subset(More)
In this review, we summarize three sets of findings that have recently been observed in thalamic astrocytes and neurons, and discuss their significance for thalamocortical loop dynamics. (i) A physiologically relevant 'window' component of the low-voltage-activated, T-type Ca(2+) current (I(Twindow)) plays an essential part in the slow (less than 1 Hz)(More)