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The use of opioid agonists acting outside the central nervous system (CNS) is a promising therapeutic strategy for pain control that avoids deleterious central side effects such as apnea and addiction. In human clinical trials and rat models of inflammatory pain, peripherally restricted opioids have repeatedly shown powerful analgesic effects; in some mouse(More)
Airway remodeling, caused by inflammation and fibrosis, is a major component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and currently has no effective treatment. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in COPD. TGF-β is expressed in a latent form that requires activation. The integrin(More)
Chronic airway inflammation and fibrosis, known as airway remodeling, are defining features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and are refractory to current treatments. How and whether chronic inflammation contributes to airway fibrosis remain controversial. In this study, we use a model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease airway disease(More)
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