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There has been much recent interest in using magnetic resonance diffusion imaging to provide information about anatomical connectivity in the brain, by measuring the anisotropic diffusion of water in white matter tracts. One of the measures most commonly derived from diffusion data is fractional anisotropy (FA), which quantifies how strongly directional the(More)
Neural connections, providing the substrate for functional networks, exist whether or not they are functionally active at any given moment. However, it is not known to what extent brain regions are continuously interacting when the brain is "at rest." In this work, we identify the major explicit activation networks by carrying out an image-based activation(More)
Though stuttering is manifest in its motor characteristics, the cause of stuttering may not relate purely to impairments in the motor system as stuttering frequency is increased by linguistic factors, such as syntactic complexity and length of utterance, and decreased by changes in perception, such as masking or altering auditory feedback. Using functional(More)
Adolescent-onset schizophrenia provides an exceptional opportunity to explore the neuropathology of schizophrenia free from the potential confounds of prolonged periods of medication and disease interactions with age-related neurodegeneration. Our aim was to investigate structural grey and white matter abnormalities in adolescent-onset schizophrenia.(More)
Brain development continues actively during adolescence. Previous MRI studies have shown complex patterns of apparent loss of grey matter (GM) volume and increases in white matter (WM) volume and fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of WM microstructure. In this longitudinal study (mean follow-up=2.5+/-0.5 years) of 24 adolescents, we used a voxel-based(More)
Listening to speech modulates activity in human motor cortex. It is unclear, however, whether the motor cortex has an essential role in speech perception. Here, we aimed to determine whether the motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds. Categorization of continuously variable acoustic signals into discrete(More)
Imaging studies in blind subjects have consistently shown that sensory and cognitive tasks evoke activity in the occipital cortex, which is normally visual. The precise areas involved and degree of activation are dependent upon the cause and age of onset of blindness. Here, we investigated the cortical language network at rest and during an auditory covert(More)
Postmortem histological studies have demonstrated that myelination in human brain white matter (WM) continues throughout adolescence and well into adulthood. We used in vivo diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to test for age-related WM changes in 42 adolescents and 20 young adults. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) analysis of the adolescent(More)
The left hemisphere specialization for speech perception might arise from asymmetries at more basic levels of auditory processing. In particular, it has been suggested that differences in "temporal" and "spectral" processing exist between the hemispheres. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test this hypothesis further. Fourteen healthy(More)
Studies in both human and nonhuman primates indicate that motor and premotor cortical regions participate in auditory and visual perception of actions. Previous studies, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), showed that perceiving visual and auditory speech increased the excitability of the orofacial motor system during speech perception. Such(More)