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PURPOSE Interest in the effects of neighbourhood or local area social characteristics on health has increased in recent years, but to date the existing evidence has not been systematically reviewed. Multilevel or contextual analyses of social factors and health represent a possible reconciliation between two divergent epidemiological paradigms-individual(More)
OBJECTIVES To see if obesity, deaths from diabetes, and daily calorie intake are associated with income inequality among developed countries. DESIGN Ecological study of 21 developed countries.Countries: Countries were eligible for inclusion if they were among the top 50 countries with the highest gross national income per capita by purchasing power parity(More)
BACKGROUND The 'ethnic density hypothesis' is a proposition that members of ethnic minority groups may have better mental health when they live in areas with higher proportions of people of the same ethnicity. Investigations into this hypothesis have resulted in a complex and sometimes disparate literature. AIMS To systematically identify relevant(More)
The Born in Bradford cohort study was established in 2007 to examine how genetic, nutritional, environmental , behavioural and social factors impact on health and development during childhood, and subsequently adult life in a deprived multi-ethnic population. Between 2007 and 2011, detailed information on socioeconomic characteristics, ethnicity and family(More)
Genetic susceptibility to antisocial behavior may increase fetal sensitivity to prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke. Testing putative gene x exposure mechanisms requires precise measurement of exposure and outcomes. We tested whether a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding the enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) interacts with exposure to predict(More)
There is a robust association between prenatal smoking and disruptive behavior disorders, but little is known about the emergence of such behaviors in early development. The association of prenatal smoking and hypothesized behavioral precursors to disruptive behavior in toddlers (N=93) was tested. Exposed toddlers demonstrated atypical behavioral patterns,(More)
OBJECTIVE Prenatal smoking is robustly associated with increased risk of conduct problems in offspring. Observational studies that provide detailed phenotypic description are critical for generating testable hypotheses about underlying processes through which the effects of prenatal smoking may operate. To this end, we use a developmental framework to(More)
Prenatal exposure to cigarettes has been robustly associated with disruptive behavior in diverse samples and across developmental periods. In this paper we aim to elucidate exposure related behavioral phenotypes and developmental pathways by testing: (a) differential associations of exposure and four disruptive behavior dimensional phenotypes: Aggression,(More)