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BACKGROUND To examine the impact of the Scottish smoke-free legislation on social inequalities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among primary school children. METHODS Comparison of nationally representative, cross-sectional, class-based surveys carried out in the same schools before and after legislation. Participants were 2532 primary school children(More)
OBJECTIVES Previous studies have shown that fluoride mouthrinsing programmes are effective in reducing caries among children and adolescents. National surveys of child dental health in the UK confirm that there is variation in oral health. In particular, children of low socioeconomic status in Scotland have a disproportionately high share of dental disease.(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to describe the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Scotland and to examine the associations among IHD health indicators, level of rurality, and degree of socioeconomic deprivation. METHODS We used routine population and health data on the population aged 40-74 years between 1981 and 1999(More)
We build upon the existing literature to formulate a class of models for multivariate mixtures of Gaussian, ordered or unordered categorical responses and continuous distributions that are not Gaussian, each of which can be defined at any level of a multilevel data hierarchy. We describe a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for fitting such models. We show(More)
Ortho-toluidine (o-toluidine), an aromatic amine, is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a probable human carcinogen. A cohort study published in 1991 reported a 6.5-fold excess incidence of bladder cancer in a chemical plant that used o-toluidine. We report 19 additional cases of bladder cancer among workers in this cohort,(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research suggests there are significant differences between socio-economic groups in prevalence and amount of decayed missing and filled primary teeth (d3mft). The aim of this study was to describe the variation in obvious tooth decay experience amongst 5-year olds in Scotland and to look at the association between d3mft and deprivation(More)
Although suicide accounts for a small percentage of deaths in Scotland (1.4% in 1999), it has been steadily increasing over the last two decades. In the US, Australia, England and Wales the greatest rises in suicide for this time period, occurred in rural areas. This study describes the pattern and magnitude of urban/rural variation in suicide in Scotland,(More)
Data from the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression for outcome variable irregular breakfast consumption (IBC). IBC prevalence in Scotland was higher among young people from reconstituted and single parent families, and particularly single father families.(More)
BACKGROUND This study investigated parental and peer influences on physical activity, examining gender and developmental differences during early-mid adolescence. METHODS A 5-year longitudinal study tracking physical activity (measured by PAQ-C) among adolescents (n = 641) from final year of primary (P7) to fourth year of secondary school (S4). Peer(More)