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L-Glutamate (Glu) homeostasis in brain extracellular fluids and its maintenance at low micromolar concentrations in the face of the extremely high Glu concentrations present in brain cells and synaptic vesicles have been commonly attributed to the very effective action of glutamate transporters present on neuronal and glial cells. This view however does not(More)
At high concentrations, glutamate (Glu) exerts potent neurotoxic properties, leading to irreversible brain damages found in numerous neurological disorders. The accepted notion that Glu homeostasis in brain interstitial fluid is maintained primarily through the activity of Glu transporters present on glial cells does not take into account the possible(More)
Claudins are transmembrane proteins that form the backbone of the tight junctions (TJs) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). TJs are cellular structures that physically obstruct the inter-endothelial space and restrict the paracellular diffusion of blood-borne substances from the peripheral circulation into the CNS. TJs are also dynamic structures that rapidly(More)
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