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The present study characterizes the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA) from exogenously added kynurenine and its regulation by extrinsic factors, in cultured cerebral cortical neurons and, for comparison, in astrocytes incubated under identical conditions. The neuronal culture showed positive immunostaining for both kynurenic acid aminotransferase (KAT)(More)
(1) There is increasing evidence that the cerebral endothelium and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in the oxidative stress-induced brain damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of interendothelial junctional proteins in the BBB permeability increase induced by oxidative stress. (2) For the experiments, we have(More)
Mannitol, which is a cell-impermeable and nontoxic polyalcohol, has been shown to be a useful tool for reversible opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Despite successful clinical trials, the molecular mechanism of the mannitol-induced changes in cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) are poorly understood. For our experiments, we used CECs in culture, which(More)
In the present study we demonstrate for the first time that both kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) isoforms I and II are present in the permanent immature rat oligodendrocytes cell line (OLN-93). Moreover, we provide evidence that OLN-93 cells are able to synthesize kynurenic acid (KYNA) from exogenously added L-kynurenine and we characterize its regulation(More)
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and all ionotropic glutamate receptors. Its neuroprotective activity has been suggested. In this study, the presence of KYNAin human saliva and its potential bactericidal role was investigated. KYNAwas found in all samples of human saliva with mean concentration of 3.4 nM. The(More)
We reported previously that tumor-evoked regulatory B cells (tBregs) play an essential role in breast cancer lung metastasis by inducing TGF-β-dependent conversion of metastasis-promoting Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this article, we show that resveratrol (RSV), a plant-derived polyphenol, at low and noncytotoxic doses for immune cells, can(More)
The synthesis of the NMDA receptor glycine site antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) from exogenously added kynurenine was measured in cultured cerebral cortical neurons, cortical astrocytes and an oligodendroglial cell line OLN-93, incubated for 2 h in the presence or absence of ammonium acetate ("ammonia") at 0.1-10 mM concentration. In neurons ammonia(More)
Inflammation is a double-edged sword that can promote or suppress cancer progression. In this study, we report that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an IL-7-like type 1 inflammatory cytokine that is often associated with the induction of Th2-type allergic responses in the lungs, is also expressed in human and murine cancers. Our studies with murine(More)
The possible therapeutic benefits of B-cell depletion in combating tumoral immune escape have been debated. In support of this concept, metastasis of highly aggressive 4T1 breast cancer cells in mice can be abrogated by inactivation of tumor-evoked regulatory B cells (tBreg). Here, we report the unexpected finding that B-cell depletion by CD20 antibody will(More)
Betulin and betulinic acid, plant-derived triterpenoid compounds, have been described to possess anti-inflammatory activity. In this paper, we examine the ability of both compounds to induce and modulate cytokine production in human whole blood cell cultures. The results indicate that betulin is a modest TNF-alpha inducer and also an enhancer of(More)