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The complexity of tissue- and day time-specific regulation of thousands of clock-controlled genes (CCGs) suggests that many regulatory mechanisms contribute to the transcriptional output of the circadian clock. We aim to predict these mechanisms using a large scale promoter analysis of CCGs.Our study is based on a meta-analysis of DNA-array data from rodent(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) productively infects only humans and chimpanzees but not Old World monkeys, such as rhesus and cynomolgus (CM) monkeys. To establish a monkey model of HIV-1/AIDS, several HIV-1 derivatives have been constructed. We previously reported that efficient replication of HIV-1 in CM cells was achieved after we(More)
The relationship of HIV tropism with disease progression and the recent development of CCR5-blocking drugs underscore the importance of monitoring virus coreceptor usage. As an alternative to costly phenotypic assays, computational methods aim at predicting virus tropism based on the sequence and structure of the V3 loop of the virus gp120 protein. Here we(More)
The circadian clock is a biological system providing an internal self-sustained temporal framework and adaptation mechanisms to the daily environmental rhythm. One of its behavioral implication in humans is the sleep-wake cycle. The core mammalian circadian clock is a system composed of interacting regulatory feedback loops present in many tissues(More)
Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into the host cell involves interactions between the viral envelope glycoproteins (Env) and the cellular receptor CD4 as well as a coreceptor molecule (most importantly CCR5 or CXCR4). Viral preference for a specific coreceptor (tropism) is in particular determined by the third variable loop (V3) of the(More)
The V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical for coreceptor binding and is the main determinant of which of the cellular coreceptors, CCR5 or CXCR4, the virus uses for cell entry. The aim of this study is to provide a large-scale data driven analysis of HIV-1 coreceptor usage with respect to the V3 loop evolution and to(More)
BACKGROUND Positive selection of host proteins that interact with pathogens can indicate factors relevant for infection and potentially be a measure of pathogen driven evolution. RESULTS Our analysis of 1439 primate genes and 175 lentivirus genomes points to specific host factors of high genetic variability that could account for differences in(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac) are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm). Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor(More)
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