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Carnitine (4-N-trimethylammonium-3-hydroxybutyric acid), a compound necessary for a transfer of fatty acids for their oxidation within the cell, accumulates in brain although beta-oxidation of fatty acids is very low in neurons. Carnitine accumulates to lower extent in the brain than in peripheral tissues and the mechanism of its transport through the(More)
Carnitine (4-N-trimethylammonium-3-hydroxybutyric acid) seems to fulfill in the brain a different role than in peripheral tissues. Carnitine is accumulated by neural cells in a sodium-dependent way. The existence of a novel transporter in plasma membrane, specific to compounds with a polar group in the beta-position with respect to carboxyl group, has been(More)
In the brain beta-oxidation, which takes place in astrocytes, is not a major process of energy supply. Astrocytes synthesize important lipid metabolites, mainly due to the processes taking place in peroxisomes. One of the compounds necessary in the process of mitochondrial beta-oxidation and export of acyl moieties from peroxisomes is l-carnitine. Two(More)
Carnitine accumulation was measured in cultured neuroblastoma NB-2a cells. This process was found partially sodium dependent and its kinetics to be a sum of a saturable transport (Km = 123 +/- 13 microM) and diffusion (D = 63 +/- 7 pmol/mg protein/min/mM). On the contrary to previous reports on neural cells, the accumulation of carnitine was found(More)
The monocarboxylate (pyruvate) carrier from bovine heart mitochondria was extracted from submitochondrial particles with Triton X-114 in the presence of cardiolipin. By a single hydroxylapatite chromatography step a 125-fold purification of the carrier protein could be achieved. High pyruvate/pyruvate-exchange activity was recovered, when the protein was(More)
Isolated yeast mitochondria were subjected to solubilization by Triton X-114 and the detergent extract was subsequently chromatrographed on dry hydroxyapatite. Purification of the yeast monocarboxylate (pyruvate) carrier was achieved by affinity chromatography on immobilized 2-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, as described previously for bovine heart mitochondria(More)
Neurons are known to accumulate l-carnitine—a compound necessary for transfer of acyl moieties through biological membranes, apart from very low β-oxidation of fatty acids in adult brain. Present study demonstrates expression of octn2 and octn3 genes coding high affinity carnitine transporters, as well as presence of both proteins in neurons obtained from(More)
Carnitine beta-hydroxy-gamma-(trimethylammonio)butyrate - a compound necessary in the peripheral tissues for a transfer of fatty acids for their oxidation within the cell, accumulates in the brain despite low beta-oxidation in this organ. In order to enter the brain, carnitine has to cross the blood-brain barrier formed by capillary endothelial cells which(More)
Palmitoylcarnitine is synthesized through the action of palmitoylcarnitine transferase I--an enzyme specifically inhibited by etomoxir. An increase of the intracellular content of palmitoylcarnitine in neuroblastoma NB-2a cells after administration of carnitine was correlated with an inhibition of cell proliferation and a concomitant promotion of(More)
The accumulation of carnitine was measured in cerebral cortex neurons isolated from adult rat brain. This process was found to be lowered by 40% after preincubation with ouabain and with SH-group reagents (N-ethylmaleimide and mersalyl). The initial velocity of carnitine transport was found to be inhibited by 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) in a competitive way (Ki(More)