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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during incomplete combustion. Domestic wood burning and road traffic are the major sources of PAHs in Sweden. In Stockholm, the sum of 14 different PAHs is 100-200 ng/m(3) at the street-level site, the most abundant being phenanthrene. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) varies between 1 and 2 ng/m(3). Exposure to(More)
The benchmark dose method has been proposed as an alternative to the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) approach for assessing noncancer risks associated with hazardous compounds. The benchmark dose method is a more powerful statistical tool than the traditional NOAEL approach and represents a step in the right direction for a more accurate risk(More)
This review deals with the current state of knowledge on the use of the benchmark dose (BMD) concept in health risk assessment of chemicals. The BMD method is an alternative to the traditional no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and has been presented as a methodological improvement in the field of risk assessment. The BMD method has mostly been(More)
Ozone is a powerful oxidant, reactive to biomolecules. In aqueous solution it decomposes to give hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxy radicals which can take part in secondary reactions. Ozone is a disinfectant that inactivates both viruses and bacteria. Although other reactions are primarily responsible for the inactivation, cellular DNA is also(More)
An alternative approach for risk assessment of nongenotoxic substances, the benchmark method, has been evaluated and applied to trichloroethene as a test case. The benchmark dose is the dose that corresponds to a specific increase in risk, normally 1 or 10%. Experimental data from the literature on trichloroethene were used for these calculations. Eighty(More)
In this paper the benchmark dose (BMD) method was introduced for spontaneous behavior data observed in 2-, 5-, and 8-month-old male and female C57Bl mice exposed orally on postnatal day 10 to different doses of 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 99). Spontaneous behavior (locomotion, rearing, and total activity) was in the present work quantified in(More)
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are formed in combustion processes and are major pollutants in urban air. Relatively few studies on the genotoxicity of NO2 and NO have been performed. These studies indicate that NO2 is genotoxic in vitro, but the effect of NO seems to be very slight. One in vivo study showed chromosome aberrations and mutations in lung cells after(More)
The BMD (benchmark dose) method that is used in risk assessment of chemical compounds was introduced by Crump (1984) and is based on dose-response modeling. To take uncertainty in the data and model fitting into account, the lower confidence bound of the BMD estimate (BMDL) is suggested to be used as a point of departure in health risk assessments. In this(More)
The benchmark dose (BMD) method was evaluated using the USEPA BMD software. Dose-response data on cleft palate and hydronephrosis for a number of related polyhalogenated aromatic compounds were obtained from the literature. According to chi(2) test statistics, each dichotomous USEPA model failed to adequately describe only 1 of 12 cleft palate data sets.(More)
We review the scientific basis for default assessment factors used in risk assessment of nongenotoxic chemicals including the use of chemical- and pathways specific assessment factors, and extrapolation approaches relevant to species differences, age and gender. One main conclusion is that the conventionally used default factor of 100 does not cover all(More)