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The best established role of acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7, AChE) is termination of neurotransmission at cholinergic synapses. However, AChE is also located at sites, where no other cholinergic components are present and there is accumulating evidence for non-cholinergic functions of this protein. In the process of skeletal muscle formation, AChE is(More)
Lysosomes are the major cell digestive organelles that were discovered over 50 years ago. They contain a number of hydrolases that help them to degrade intracellular and extracellular material delivered. Among the hydrolases, the cathepsins, a group of proteases enclosed in the lysosomes, have a major role. About a decade ago, the cathepsins were found to(More)
Transfection of primary human myoblasts offers the possibility to study mechanisms that are important for muscle regeneration and gene therapy of muscle disease. Cultured human myoblasts were selected here because muscle cells still proliferate at this developmental stage, which might have several advantages in gene therapy. Gene therapy is one of the most(More)
Besides their role in cellular responses to hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are involved in innate immunity and also have anti-inflammatory (M2) functions, such as resolution of inflammation preceding healing. Whereas the first steps of the inflammatory response are associated with proinflammatory (M1) macrophages (MPs), resolution of inflammation(More)
BACKGROUND Long term effects of different doses of ionizing radiation on human skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation, cytokine signalling and stress response capacity were studied in primary cell cultures. MATERIALS AND METHODS Human skeletal muscle myoblasts obtained from muscle biopsies were cultured and irradiated with a Darpac 2000 X-ray unit at(More)
Lysosome is the central organelle for intracellular degradation of biological macromolecules and organelles. The material destined for degradation enters the lysosomes primarily via endocytosis, autophagy and phagocytosis, and is degraded through the concerted action of more than 50 lysosomal hydrolases. However, lysosomes are also linked with numerous(More)
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