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Researchers have begun to evaluate animals' metacognitive capacities. Continuing this evaluation, the present authors asked whether monkeys could use the analog of a confidence-rating scale to judge retrospectively their accuracy in a psychophysical discrimination. Monkeys and human participants classified stimuli as dense or sparse without feedback. Then,(More)
Recent reports from the Institute of Medicine and other sources have shown that far too many avoidable medical errors occur; other research has shown a strong association between patient outcomes and characteristics of nursing staff. The authors of this paper present findings from multimethod research conducted over three years in 29 small rural hospitals(More)
OBJECTIVE Guided by a domain-specific cumulative risk model and an emerging notion of general and alcohol-specific influences, this study examined whether general and alcohol-specific influences from family, peer, and school contexts in childhood and adolescence differentially predict heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use disorder at two developmental(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined the association between age at alcohol use onset and adult alcohol misuse and dependence by testing the sensitive-period hypothesis that early adolescence (11-14) is a vulnerable period of development during which initiating alcohol use is particularly harmful. METHOD Data came from a longitudinal panel of 808 participants(More)
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was examined by employing confirmatory factor analytic techniques to data from two samples collected 1998-1999: college students (n = 465) and court-referred, substance use treatment outpatients (clinical sample; n = 135). Despite the fact that the AUDIT was originally designed as a three-factor measure(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined potential explanatory mechanisms linking childhood alcohol use onset and chronicity of adult alcohol dependence by testing the following three competing hypotheses: (1) a marker hypothesis, where early onset of alcohol use may be simply a marker for other factors that have been linked to both age at initiation and adult alcohol(More)
BACKGROUND The present study examines whether general and alcohol-specific peer risk factors from age 10 to 18 are associated with longitudinal patterns of adult alcohol abuse disorder symptoms from age 21 to 33. METHODS Using growth mixture modeling, trajectory groups of alcohol abuse disorder symptoms from age 21 to 33 were identified. We then examined(More)
As of January 2016, 23 U.S. states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical or nonmedical cannabis, with more likely to follow. This dynamic policy context represents a substantial challenge for policy evaluation. Part I of this article provides a summary of state-level cannabis policy components across states and federal action regarding(More)
This article examines whether longitudinal reading trajectories vary by the generational status of immigrant children as they begin formal schooling through the 3rd grade. The results of the hierarchical linear model indicated that 1st and 2nd generation children (i.e., those born in a foreign country and those born in the United States to foreign-born(More)
The current study tested whether unemployment predicted young adults' heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use after taking into account individual development in substance use. Furthermore, building on the life course perspective, this study examined whether the link between unemployment and substance use among young adults differed for(More)