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The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would(More)
The environmental targets of the recently agreed Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) targets are likely associated with a considerable cost, which motivates a search for low-cost policies. The following review shows there is a substantial literature on cost-efficient nutrient reduction strategies, including suggestions regarding low-cost abatement, but actual(More)
Helcom's recently revised Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) aims to reduce eutrophication in the, Baltic Sea by reducing nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins. The BALTCOST costminimisa-tion, model, featuring abatement cost and effect functions which utilise spatial data down to, 10 Â 10 km 2 grid cell resolution, is used to identify a(More)
It has been suggested that carbon labelling of food, on voluntary or non-voluntary basis, could reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, there is limited empirical evidence on the influence of such labels on consumer purchases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether voluntary carbon labelling affects the demand for milk. A randomized(More)
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