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BACKGROUND Previous studies on the treatment of women with fear of childbirth have focused on the delivery mode. Women with fear of childbirth often suffer from anxiety and/or depression, and treatment therefore also needs to target postnatal psychological well-being and the early mother-infant relationship. METHODS Three hundred and seventy-one(More)
The transition from general education (e.g., high school) to vocational and tertiary education (e.g., college, vocational school) or to the labor market presents a number of developmental challenges. These challenges include making career choices and, more broadly, managing the transition. Coping with these challenges depends on the individual, their social(More)
This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that maternal(More)
This study focused on investigating the kinds of personal goals young adults have when they are faced with the transition from school to work; the extent to which they reconstruct these goals as a consequence of their success in dealing with this transition; and how their goals influence their depressive symptoms. In order to investigate these research(More)
Two cross-lagged longitudinal studies were carried out to investigate the extent to which the adjustment of personal goals to match the particular stage-specific demands of the transition to motherhood has consequences for women's depressive symptoms. In Study 1. 348 women filled out a revised version of Little's (1983) Personal Project Analysis and a(More)
Control beliefs play an important role in how people direct their own development during their life span. However, research into age differences in control beliefs has produced inconsistent results. In this study, 381 subjects (19 to 71 years old) completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to write down their goals and concerns. They were then asked(More)
This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their(More)
Although substantial research has been done on loneliness, in only a few studies has the extent of its association with the cognitive and attributional strategies people apply in social situations been investigated. Two studies were carried out among Finnish students to examine this association. In Study 1, 70 men and 202 women filled in the(More)
Personal projects can be described as self-articulated goals and related sequences of actions. In order to investigate what kind of personal projects people with psychological problems have, and how they work on them, 28 counselling client students, 44 students of psychology, and 45 students of technology completed a Finnish version of Little's (1987)(More)
This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age=15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor groups(More)