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Phosphorylation of aspartic acid residues is the hallmark of two- component signal transduction systems that orchestrate the adaptive responses of micro-organisms to changes in their surroundings. Two-component systems consist of a sensor kinase that interprets environmental signals and a response regulator that activates the appropriate physiological(More)
DivIVA from Bacillus subtilis is a bifunctional protein with distinct roles in cell division and sporulation. During vegetative growth, DivIVA regulates the activity of the MinCD complex, thus helping to direct cell division to the correct mid-cell position. DivIVA fulfils a quite different role during sporulation in B. subtilis when it directs the oriC(More)
Adaptive responses of micro-organisms, such as chemotaxis and sporulation, are governed by two-component systems consisting of sensor kinases, that interpret environmental signals, and response regulators which activate the appropriate physiological responses. Signal transduction via response regulator proteins is mediated through transient phosphorylation(More)
Sporulation in Bacillus involves the induction of scores of genes in a temporally and spatially co-ordinated programme of cell development. Its initiation is under the control of an expanded two-component signal transduction system termed a phosphorelay. The master control element in the decision to sporulate is the response regulator, Spo0A, which(More)
DivIVA appears to be a mediator of inhibition by MinCD of division at the cell poles in Bacillus subtilis. Gel permeation and ultracentrifugation techniques were used to show self-association of DivIVA into a form consisting of 10-12 monomers in vitro. Western blot analysis of non-denaturating polyacrylamide gels confirms the presence of similar oligomers(More)
The response regulator proteins of two-component systems mediate many adaptations of bacteria to their ever-changing environment. Most response regulators are transcription factors that alter the level of transcription of specific sets of genes. Activation of response regulators requires their phosphorylation on a conserved aspartate residue by a cognate(More)
Membranes are vital structures for cellular life forms. As thin, hydrophobic films, they provide a physical barrier separating the aqueous cytoplasm from the outside world or from the interiors of other cellular compartments. They maintain a selective permeability for the import and export of water-soluble compounds, enabling the living cell to maintain a(More)
The fluid mosaic model of membrane structure has been revised in recent years as it has become evident that domains of different lipid composition are present in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Using membrane binding fluorescent dyes, we demonstrate the presence of lipid spirals extending along the long axis of cells of the rod-shaped bacterium Bacillus(More)
Spo0A, the response regulator protein controlling the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus, has two distinct domains, an N-terminal phosphoacceptor (or receiver) domain and a C-terminal DNA-binding (or effector) domain. The phosphoacceptor domain mediates dimerization of Spo0A on phosphorylation. A comparison of the crystal structures of phosphorylated and(More)
Thioredoxins are low molecular weight proteins, which participate in a wide spectrum of biochemical reactions. Two thioredoxins from Streptomyces aureofaciens 3239 have been purified to homogeneity by a sequence of chromatography steps including chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, Phenyl Sepharose CL 4B and MonoQ HR 5/5. Thioredoxin activity clearly(More)