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Nitric oxide (NO) is a widespread signaling molecule with potentially multifarious actions of relevance to health and disease. A fundamental determinant of how it acts is its concentration, but there remains a lack of coherent information on the patterns of NO release from its sources, such as neurons or endothelial cells, in either normal or pathological(More)
Brain function is usually perceived as being performed by neurons with the support of glial cells, the network of blood vessels situated nearby serving simply to provide nutrient and to dispose of metabolic waste. Revising this view, we find from experiments on a rodent central white matter tract (the optic nerve) in vitro that microvascular endothelial(More)
In the majority of spinal cord injuries (SCIs), some axonal projections remain intact. We examined the functional status of these surviving axons since they represent a prime therapeutic target. Using a novel electrophysiological preparation, adapted from techniques used to study primary demyelination, we quantified conduction failure across a SCI and(More)
Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) has striking effects on promoting neuronal plasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI), but little is known about its involvement in other pathological mechanisms. Recent work showed that ChABC might also modulate the immune response by promoting M2 macrophage polarization. Here we investigate in detail the immunoregulatory effects(More)
Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a family of inhibitory extracellular matrix molecules that are highly expressed during development, where they are involved in processes of pathfinding and guidance. CSPGs are present at lower levels in the mature CNS, but are highly concentrated in perineuronal nets where they play an important role in(More)
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit repair following spinal cord injury. Here we use mammalian-compatible engineered chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) delivered via lentiviral vector (LV-ChABC) to explore the consequences of large-scale CSPG digestion for spinal cord repair. We demonstrate significantly reduced secondary injury pathology in adult(More)
In the hippocampus, as in many other CNS areas, nitric oxide (NO) participates in synaptic plasticity, manifested as changes in pre- and/or postsynaptic function. While it is known that these changes are brought about by cGMP following activation of guanylyl cyclase-coupled NO receptors attempts to locate cGMP by immunocytochemistry in hippocampal slices in(More)
Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are extracellular matrix molecules whose inhibitory activity is attenuated by the enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChABC). Here we assess whether CSPG degradation can promote compensatory sprouting of the intact corticospinal tract (CST) following unilateral injury and restore function to the denervated forelimb. Adult(More)
Following traumatic spinal cord injury, acute demyelination of spinal axons is followed by a period of spontaneous remyelination. However, this endogenous repair response is suboptimal and may account for the persistently compromised function of surviving axons. Spontaneous remyelination is largely mediated by Schwann cells, where demyelinated central(More)