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Bcl-2 belongs to a growing family of proteins which regulates programmed cell death (apoptosis). Overexpression of Bcl-2 has been observed in 70% of breast cancer, 30-60% of prostate cancer, 80% of B-cell lymphomas, 90% of colorectal adenocarcinomas, and many other forms of cancer. Thereby, Bcl-2 is an attractive new anti-cancer target. Herein, we describe(More)
The members of the chimaerin family of Rac-GTPase-activating proteins possess a single C1 domain with high homology to those present in protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes. This domain in PKCs is involved in phorbol ester and diacylglycerol (DAG) binding. We previously have demonstrated that one of the chimaerin isoforms, beta2-chimaerin, binds phorbol esters(More)
Chronic myeloid leukemia responds well to therapy targeting the oncogenic fusion protein BCR-ABL1 in chronic phase, but is resistant to treatment after it progresses to blast crisis (BC). BC is characterized by elevated β-catenin signaling in granulocyte macrophage progenitors (GMPs), which enables this population to function as leukemia stem cells (LSCs)(More)
The binding mode of DAG-lactones to PK-C was investigated using the C1b domain from the X-ray structure of the phorbol ester/C1b complex of PK-C delta as a template. Modeling experiments revealed two binding alternatives in which one of the carbonyls of the DAG lactones remained uninvolved with the protein. Experimentally, however, the removal of either(More)
Enzyme localization often plays a controlling role in determining its activity and specificity. Protein kinase C (PKC) has long been known to translocate in response to physiological stimuli as well as to exogenous ligands such as the phorbol esters. We report here that different phorbol derivatives and related ligands, selected for differences in chemical(More)
The design of potent protein kinase C (PK-C) ligands with low nanomolar binding affinities was accomplished by the combined use of pharmacophore- and receptor-guided approaches based on the structure of the physiological enzyme activator, diacylglycerol (DAG). Earlier use of the former approach, which was based on the structural equivalence of DAG and(More)
An in silico fragment-based drug design approach was devised and applied towards the identification of small molecule inhibitors of the dengue virus (DENV) NS2B-NS3 protease. Currently, no DENV protease co-crystal structure with bound inhibitor and fully formed substrate binding site is available. Therefore a homology model of DENV NS2B-NS3 protease was(More)
The C1 domains of conventional and novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms bind diacylglycerol and phorbol esters with high affinity. Highly conserved hydrophobic residues at or near the rim of the binding cleft in the second cysteine-rich domain of PKC-delta (PKC-deltaC1b) were mutated to probe their roles in ligand recognition and lipid interaction.(More)
A small, focused combinatorial library encompassing all possible permutations of acyl branched alkyl chains-small and large, saturated and unsaturated-was generated from the active diacylglycerol enantiomer (S-DAG) to help identify the analogue with the highest binding affinity (lowest Ki) for protein kinase C (PK-C) combined with the minimum lipophilicity(More)
Diacylglycerol lactones (DAG lactones), analogous to highly potent diacylglycerols (DAGs) were synthesized to demonstrate the ability of PK-C to discriminate between two differential binding modes, sn-1 and sn-2. While both sn-1 and sn-2 binding modes are allowable in terms of hydrogen bonding, it has been found that in general, DAGs prefer to bind sn-1,(More)