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Tumor hypoxia is a common microenvironmental factor that adversely influences tumor phenotype and treatment response. Cellular adaptation to hypoxia occurs through multiple mechanisms, including activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Recent reports have indicated that hypoxia activates a lysosomal degradation pathway known as autophagy, and here(More)
Inflammation contributes to renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, potentially causing renal dysfunction. The inflammatory infiltrate mainly consists of neutrophils, which are deleterious for the renal tissue. Because CD44 is expressed by neutrophils and is rapidly upregulated by capillary endothelial cells after I/R injury, it was hypothesized that CD44(More)
TLRs are conserved pattern recognition receptors that detect motifs of pathogens and host material released during injury. For unknown reasons, renal TLR2 mRNA is mainly expressed by tubular cells and is enhanced upon renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We evaluated the role of TLR2 in I/R injury using TLR2-/- and TLR2+/+ mice, TLR2 antisense(More)
CD44 is a glycoprotein that is involved in inflammation and cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions, is upregulated in the kidney upon injury, and leads to fibrosis through enhancement of TGF-beta1 signaling. Absence of CD44 prevents development of renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). A hallmark of development of renal fibrosis is the(More)
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is amplified or mutated in various human epithelial tumors. Its expression and activation leads to cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Consistently, EGFR amplification or expression of EGFR variant 3 (EGFRvIII) is associated with resistance to conventional cancer therapy through activation of(More)
BACKGROUND (Pre)clinical studies indicate that autophagy inhibition increases response to anti-cancer therapies. Although promising, due to contradicting reports, it remains unclear if radiation therapy changes autophagy activity and if autophagy inhibition changes the cellular intrinsic radiosensitivity. Discrepancies may result from different assays and(More)
Acute renal failure is often the result of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Neutrophil influx is an important damaging event in I/R. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) not only is a major fibrinolytic agent but also is involved in inflammatory processes. A distinct upregulation of tPA after I/R, with de novo tPA production by proximal renal tubules,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Human tumors are characterized by the presence of cells that experience periodic episodes of hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. These cells are exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon reoxygenation and require adaptation to this stress by lowering ROS production or enhancing ROS-clearance for their survival. We hypothesized that(More)
The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is expressed at the cell surface of inflammatory cells and plays an important role in neutrophil migration. To investigate the in vivo role of uPAR during urinary tract infection, acute pyelonephritis was induced in uPAR-/- and wild-type (WT) mice by intravesical inoculation with 1 x 10(9) colony-forming(More)
The poorly developed vasculature in solid human tumors is responsible for a profound level of intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity in oxygen concentration. High levels of hypoxia are associated with poor patient prognosis due in part to hypoxia-induced changes in cell metabolism, angiogenesis, invasiveness and resistance to therapy. Over the past decade(More)