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How to measure usability is an important question in HCI research and user interface evaluation. We review current practice in measuring usability by categorizing and discussing usability measures from 180 studies published in core HCI journals and proceedings. The discussion distinguish several problems with the measures, including whether they actually(More)
Usability comprises the aspects effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. The correlations between these aspects are not well understood for complex tasks. We present data from an experiment where 87 subjects solved 20 information retrieval tasks concerning programming problems. The correlation between efficiency, as indicated by task completion time,(More)
The literature on information visualization establishes the usability of interfaces with an overview of the information space, but for zoomable user interfaces, results are mixed. We compare zoomable user interfaces with and without an overview to understand the navigation patterns and usability of these interfaces. Thirty-two subjects solved navigation and(More)
Reading of electronic documents is becoming increasingly important as more information is disseminated electronically. We present an experiment that compares the usability of a linear, a fisheye, and an overview+detail interface for electronic documents. Using these interfaces, 20 subjects wrote essays and answered questions about scientific documents.(More)
We present an exploration of reading patterns and usability in visualizations of electronic documents. Twenty subjects wrote essays and answered questions about scientific documents using an overview+detail, a fisheye, and a linear interface. We study reading patterns by progression maps that visualize the progression of subjects' reading activity, and by(More)
We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term 'cultural differences' helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily(More)
Rotation of three-dimensional objects by a two-dimensional mouse is a typical task in computer-aided design, operation simulations, and desktop virtual reality. The most commonly used rotation technique is a virtual trackball surrounding the object and operated by the mouse pointer. We review and provide a mathematical foundation for virtual trackballs. The(More)
Fisheye menus have become a prominent example of fisheye interfaces, yet contain several nonfisheye elements and have not been systematically evaluated. This study investigates whether fisheye menus are useful, and tries to untangle the impact on usability of the following properties of fisheye menus: use of distortion, index of letters for coarse(More)