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In humans, ten Toll-like receptor (TLR) paralogues sense molecular components of microbes, initiating the production of cytokine mediators that create the inflammatory response. Using… Expand
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is required for the recognition of numerous molecular components of bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The breadth of the ligand repertoire seems unusual, even if one considers… Expand
CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that express a conserved T-cell receptor and contribute to host defence against various microbial pathogens. However, their… Expand
Several subsets of dendritic cells have been shown to produce type I IFN in response to viral infections, thereby assisting the natural killer cell-dependent response that eliminates the pathogen.… Expand
Both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) are adjuvants for the adaptive immune response, inducing upregulation of costimulatory molecules (UCM) on antigen-presenting cells. Trif,… Expand
Here we have identified 'triple D' (3d), a recessive N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutation and phenotype in which no signaling occurs via the intracellular Toll-like receptors 3, 7 and 9 (sensors… Expand
Classical genetic methods, driven by phenotype rather than hypotheses, generally permit the identification of all proteins that serve nonredundant functions in a defined biological process. Long… Expand
Macrophages and dendritic cells are in the front line of host defense. When they sense host invasion, they produce cytokines that alert other innate immune cells and also abet the development of an… Expand
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of sporadic viral encephalitis in western countries. Its pathogenesis remains unclear, as it affects otherwise healthy… Expand
This focus analyzes some of the ways the innate immune system influences adaptive immune responses. Here the main principles and themes that govern this intricate relationship are discussed.