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O n 11 November 2000, at the Kaprun resort in Austria, 162 passengers boarded a funicu-lar Gletscherbahn train for an early-morning trip to the ski slopes. As the train traveled through a 3,300-meter tunnel at 10 m/sec to an altitude of 2,450 meters above sea level, a heater at the car-riage's lower end caught fire. The fire destroyed the braking system(More)
Due to catastrophic disasters induced by forces of nature like flooding or tsunamis, terrorism or nuclear power plant accidents, understanding the dynamics of urban evacuation systems has elicited massive interest over the past years. While discrete event simulations of evacuation models become prohibitively complex dealing with the time, space and(More)
In order to develop complexity science based modeling, prediction and simulation methods for large scale socio-technical systems in an Ambient Intelligence (AmI) based smart environment, we propose a scenario based modeling approach. With a case study on AmI technology to support the evacuation from emergency scenarios, i.e. the Life Belt, a wearable(More)
To individuals evacuating, many multi-exit environments do not allow visibility of all the exits due to line-of-sight constraint. In addition, the environment can be dark or smoky, not allowing visibility to even a single exit. In such a situation, given that each individual in the crowd is accompanied with a helping device globally connected with a central(More)