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Protein phosphorylation plays a fundamental role in most of the cellular regulatory pathways. Experimental identification of protein kinases' (PKs) substrates with their phosphorylation sites is labor-intensive and often limited by the availability and optimization of enzymatic reactions. Recently, large-scale analysis of the phosphoproteome by the mass(More)
The expansion of repressive epigenetic marks has been implicated in heterochromatin formation during embryonic development, but the general applicability of this mechanism is unclear. Here we show that nuclear rearrangement of repressive histone marks H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 into nonoverlapping structural layers characterizes senescence-associated(More)
The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear body (NB) is a dynamic subnuclear compartment that is implicated in tumor suppression, as well as in the transcription, replication, and repair of DNA. PML NB number can change during the cell cycle, increasing in S phase and in response to cellular stress, including DNA damage. Although topological changes in(More)
Chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by protein kinase signaling cascades. A biochemical cascade named spindle checkpoint ensures the spatial and temporal order of chromosome segregation during mitosis. Here we report that spindle checkpoint protein MAD1 interacts with NEK2A, a human orthologue of the Aspergillus nidulans NIMA kinase. MAD1(More)
The mammalian genome is compacted to fit within the confines of the cell nucleus. DNA is wrapped around nucleosomes, forming the classic "beads-on-a-string" 10-nm chromatin fibre. Ten-nanometre chromatin fibres are thought to condense into 30-nm fibres. This structural reorganization is widely assumed to correspond to transitions between active and(More)
An open chromatin architecture devoid of compact chromatin is thought to be associated with pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Establishing this distinct epigenetic state may also be required for somatic cell reprogramming. However, there has been little direct examination of global structural domains of chromatin during the founding and loss of(More)
The organisation of the large volume of mammalian genomic DNA within cell nuclei requires mechanisms to regulate chromatin compaction involving the reversible formation of higher order structures. The compaction state of chromatin varies between interphase and mitosis and is also subject to rapid and reversible change upon ATP depletion/repletion. In this(More)
Yip1p and Yif1p are essential for transport from ER to Golgi stack during the early secretory pathway in budding yeast. Here, we report the identification and characterization of human Yif1. Sequence analysis revealed that human Yif1 (HsYif1), like most of the other YIP1 protein family members, contains multiple transmembrane segments. Double(More)
The PML gene of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) encodes a cell-growth and tumor suppressor. PML localizes to discrete nuclear bodies (NBs) that are disrupted in APL cells, resulting from a reciprocal chromosome translocation t (15;17). Here we show that the nuclear localization of PML is also regulated by SUMO-3, one of the three recently identified SUMO(More)
Our understanding of sub-nuclear organisation is largely based on fluorescence and electron microscopy methods. Conventional electron microscopy, which depends on heavy atom contrast agents, provides excellent contrast of condensed chromatin and some sub-nuclear structures such as the nucleolus. Unfortunately, other components, 10-nm chromatin fibres for(More)