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Two T helper (Th) cell subsets, namely Th1 and Th2 cells, play an important role in inflammatory diseases. The two subsets are thought to counter-regulate each other, and alterations in their balance result in different diseases. This paradigm has been challenged by recent clinical and experimental data. Because of the large number of genes involved in(More)
BACKGROUND The ability of a gene to cause a disease is known to be associated with the topological position of its protein product in the molecular interaction network. Pleiotropy, in human genetic diseases, refers to the ability of different mutations within the same gene to cause different pathological effects. Here, we hypothesized that the ability of(More)
The differentiation of human primary T helper 1 (Th1) cells from naïve precursor cells is regulated by a complex, interrelated signaling network. The identification of factors regulating the early steps of Th1 cell polarization can provide important insight in the development of therapeutics for many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in regulating mRNA expression, and individual miRNAs have been proposed as diagnostic and therapeutic candidates. The identification of such candidates is complicated by the involvement of multiple miRNAs and mRNAs as well as unknown disease topology of the miRNAs. Here, we investigated if disease-associated miRNAs(More)
Although genome-wide association studies and fine mapping have identified 39 non-HLA loci associated with celiac disease (CD), it is difficult to pinpoint the functional variants and susceptibility genes in these loci. We applied integrative approaches to annotate and prioritize functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genes and pathways affected(More)
Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of variants associated with a risk for autoimmune and immune-related disorders (AID), our understanding of the disease mechanisms is still limited. In particular, more than 90% of the risk variants lie in non-coding regions, and almost 10% of these map to long non-coding RNA(More)
T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of T cells requires the interaction of dozens of proteins. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry and activated primary CD4(+) T cells from mice in which a tag for affinity purification was knocked into several genes to determine the composition and dynamics of multiprotein complexes that formed around(More)
Although GTPase of the immunity-associated protein (GIMAP) family are known to be most highly expressed in the cells of the immune system, their function and role remain still poorly characterized. Small GTPases in general are known to be involved in many cellular processes in a cell type-specific manner and to contribute to specific differentiation(More)
Neural crest cells are specified at the border between the neural plate and the epiderm. They are capable of differentiating into various somatic cell types, including craniofacial and peripheral nerve tissues. Notch signaling plays important roles during neurogenesis; however, its function during human neural crest development is poorly understood. Here,(More)
The development of therapeutic strategies to combat immune-associated diseases requires the molecular mechanisms of human Th17 cell differentiation to be fully identified and understood. To investigate transcriptional control of Th17 cell differentiation, we used primary human CD4+ T cells in small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing and(More)