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Strongly inwardly rectifying potassium channels are blocked by intracellular polyamines with a uniquely steep voltage dependence. An understanding of the fundamental details underlying the voltage dependence of polyamine block requires a constrained structural description of the polyamine-binding site. With this goal in mind, we previously used a "blocker(More)
The FYVE domain mediates the recruitment of proteins involved in membrane trafficking and cell signaling to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P)-containing membranes. To elucidate the mechanism by which the FYVE domain interacts with PtdIns(3)P-containing membranes, we measured the membrane binding of the FYVE domains of yeast Vps27p and Drosophila(More)
Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii rely on actin-based motility to cross biological barriers and invade host cells. Key structural and biochemical differences in host and parasite actins make this an attractive target for small-molecule inhibitors. Here we took advantage of recent advances in the synthesis of cyclic depsipeptide compounds that(More)
Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2's) are enzymes that hydrolyze glycerophospholipids at the sn-2 position, which leads to the production of lipid mediators of many cellular processes. These interfacial enzymes are regulated by their lipid specificity at two levels: membrane binding and substrate recognition. Different sPLA2's utilize different combinations(More)
Apicomplexan parasites rely on a novel form of actin-based motility called gliding, which depends on parasite actin polymerization, to migrate through their hosts and invade cells. However, parasite actins are divergent both in sequence and function and only form short, unstable filaments in contrast to the stability of conventional actin filaments. The(More)
Many experimental, structural and computational studies have established the importance of nonspecific electrostatics as a driving force for peripheral membrane association. Here we focus on this component of protein/membrane interactions by using examples ranging from phosphoinositide signaling to retroviral assembly. We stress the utility of the(More)
The secreted phospholipase A(2) from bee venom (bvPLA(2)) contains a membrane binding surface composed mainly of hydrophobic residues and two basic residues that come in close contact with the membrane. Previous studies have shown that the mutant in which these two basic residues (K14 and R23) as well as three other nearby basic residues were collectively(More)
FYVE domains are membrane targeting domains that are found in proteins involved in endosomal trafficking and signal transduction pathways. Most FYVE domains bind specifically to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), a lipid that resides mainly in endosomal membranes. Though the specific interactions between FYVE domains and the headgroup of PI(3)P have(More)
This study systematically analyzed the structural and mechanistic basis of the regulation of subcellular membrane targeting using FYVE domains as a model. FYVE domains, which mediate the recruitment of signaling and membrane-trafficking proteins to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-containing endosomes, exhibit distinct subcellular localization despite minor(More)
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate or ATP is the primary energy source within the cell, releasing its energy via hydrolysis into adenosine 5'-diphosphate or ADP. Actin is an important ATPase involved in many aspects of cellular function, and the binding and hydrolysis of ATP regulates its polymerization into actin filaments as well as its interaction with a host of(More)