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The lasting effects of neuronal activity on brain development involve calcium-dependent gene expression. Using a strategy called transactivator trap, we cloned a calcium-responsive transactivator called CREST (for calcium-responsive transactivator). CREST is a SYT-related nuclear protein that interacts with adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) response(More)
OBJECTIVE Lymphatic malformations cause significant symptoms and functional deficits. Patients seek care for functional and symptomatic effects of their disease, but current disease burden and treatment outcome measures focus primarily on anatomy and histopathology. The authors describe disease impacts reported by patients and parents as a step toward more(More)
The impact of contacts on device and circuit performance is becoming larger with technology scaling because of higher resistance as well as increased variability. Thus, techniques are needed for measurement, analysis, and modeling of variation in contactss, and for devices, interconnects, and circuits in general, in order to ensure robust circuit design. A(More)
We investigate the association between voluntary disclosure and the risk-related discount investors apply to price. Prior research indicates that when the analysis is based on a commitment to disclose the association is negative (i.e., more disclosure is associated with a lower discount). Our results suggest that with voluntary, or endogenous, disclosure(More)
We show that, on average, the level of product market competition acts as a disciplining force constraining managers from misreporting accounting information. Further, in a quasi-natural experiment that uses shifts in import tariffs to identify exogenous intensification of competition, difference-indifference estimations support the causal nature of the(More)
Lymphatic malformations are benign vascular lesions that arise from embryological disturbances in the development of the lymphatic system. They encompass a wide spectrum of related abnormalities, including cystic lymphatic lesions, angiokeratoma, lymphatic malformations that occur in bones (Gorham-Stout Syndrome), lymphatic and chylous leak conditions, and(More)
In recent years, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been successfully used in the design of artiicial neural networks for a variety of applications. The suitability of EAs for this design task stems from their ability to adaptively search large spaces in near-optimal ways. One direct application of this advance has been in the area of evolutionary robotics,(More)
IMPORTANCE The optimal treatment for head and neck lymphatic malformations (LMs) is unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first head-to-head comparison of primary surgery and sclerotherapy for this condition. OBJECTIVE To compare surgery and sclerotherapy as initial treatment for head and neck LMs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort(More)
Lymphatic malformations are congenital vascular malformations most commonly found in the head and neck and typically presenting early in life. Although this disease entity has been recognized for more than a century, there is currently no standardization of disease staging or classification, of treatment paradigms, or of outcome measures. A wide variety of(More)