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Biological formation of methane is the terminal process of biomass degradation in aquatic habitats where oxygen, nitrate, ferric iron and sulphate have been depleted as electron acceptors. The pathway leading from dead biomass to methane through the metabolism of anaerobic bacteria and archaea is well understood for easily degradable biomolecules such as(More)
Membranes play a crucial role in cellular functions. Membranes provide a physical barrier, control the trafficking of substances entering and leaving the cell, and are a major determinant of cellular ultra-structure. In addition, components embedded within the membrane participate in cell signaling, energy transduction, and other critical cellular(More)
Current metagenomic approaches to the study of complex microbial consortia provide a glimpse into the community metabolism and occasionally allow genomic assemblies for the most abundant organisms. However, little information is gained for the members of the community present at low frequencies, especially those representing yet-uncultured taxa, which(More)
Commensal microbes on the skin surface influence the behaviour of cells below the epidermis. We hypothesized that bacteria or their products exist below the surface epithelium and thus permit physical interaction between microbes and dermal cells. Here to test this hypothesis, we employed multiple independent detection techniques for bacteria including(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases(More)
At the beginning of the transcription process, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core enzyme requires a σ-factor to recognize the genomic location at which the process initiates. Although the crucial role of σ-factors has long been appreciated and characterized for many individual promoters, we do not yet have a genome-scale assessment of their function. Using(More)
State-of-the-art DNA sequencing technologies are transforming the life sciences due to their ability to generate nucleotide sequence information with a speed and quantity that is unapproachable with traditional Sanger sequencing. Genome sequencing is a principal application of this technology, where the ultimate goal is the full and complete sequence of the(More)
Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of(More)
Denitrifying strain EbN1 utilizes either ethylbenzene or toluene as the sole source of organic carbon under strictly anoxic conditions. When cells were grown on ethylbenzene, 1-phenylethanol and acetophenone were detected in the culture supernatant. However, these two compounds were not observed when cells were grown on benzoate. Growth on ethylbenzene,(More)
BACKGROUND The metabolic capabilities of acetogens to ferment a wide range of sugars, to grow autotrophically on H2/CO2, and more importantly on synthesis gas (H2/CO/CO2) make them very attractive candidates as production hosts for biofuels and biocommodities. Acetogenic metabolism is considered one of the earliest modes of bacterial metabolism. A thorough(More)