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Although the role of Toll-like receptors in extracellular bacterial sensing has been investigated intensively, intracellular detection of bacteria through Nod molecules remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that human Nod1 specifically detects a unique diaminopimelate-containing N-acetylglucosamine-N-acetylmuramic acid (GlcNAc-MurNAc) tripeptide(More)
In vitro studies on the pathogenesis in swine have been hampered by the lack of relevant porcine cell lines. Since many bacterial infections are swine-specific, studies on pathogenic mechanisms require appropriate cell lines of porcine origin. We have characterized the permanent porcine intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2, using a variety of methods in(More)
The RNA chaperone, Hfq, plays a diverse role in bacterial physiology beyond its original role as a host factor required for replication of Qbeta RNA bacteriophage. In this study, we show that Hfq is involved in the expression and secretion of virulence factors in the facultative intracellular pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium. A Salmonella hfq deletion(More)
Following the Europe-wide ban of antimicrobial growth promoters, feed supplementation with zinc has increased in livestock breeding. In addition to possible beneficial effects on animal health, feed supplementation with heavy metals is known to influence the gut microbiota and might promote the spread of antimicrobial resistance via co-selection or other(More)
Numerous, overlapping global regulatory systems mediate the environmental signalling controlling the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium. With both extra- and intracellular lifestyles, unravelling the mechanisms involved in regulating Salmonella pathogenesis has been complex. Here, we report a factor co-ordinating environmental signals with global(More)
During infection of mammalian hosts, facultative intracellular pathogens have to adjust rapidly to different environmental conditions encountered during passage through the gastrointestinal tract and following uptake into epithelial cells and macrophages. Successful establishment within the host therefore requires the coordinated expression of a large(More)
Probiotics have shown positive effects on gastrointestinal diseases; they have barrier-modulating effects and change the inflammatory response towards pathogens in studies in vitro. The aim of this investigation has been to examine the response of intestinal epithelial cells to Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium), a probiotic positively affecting(More)
In this study, the effects of high levels of guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) on the decay and RNA chain elongation kinetics of the bacteriophage lambda late transcript in Escherichia coli were examined in the absence of amino acid starvation. The accumulation, mRNA decay kinetics, and RNA chain elongation rate of the lambda late mRNA were determined after(More)
Chlamydiae are obligately intracellular pathogens which cause infections associated with a broad range of diseases in both livestock and humans. In addition, a large proportion of animals may become persistently infected asymptomatic carriers and serve as reservoirs for other animals which also shed these potential zoonotic pathogens. Reducing the(More)
The downstream box (db) with complementarity to a segment in the penultimate stem of 16S rRNA has been suggested to serve as a recognition element for the ribosome. For some mRNAs, the db has been proposed to act synergistically with the Shine and Dalgarno sequence (SD), while for the leaderless lambda(cI) mRNA it has been suggested to substitute for the SD(More)