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In the bacterium Escherichia coli, selection of the division site involves pole-to-pole oscillations of the proteins MinD and MinE. Different oscillation mechanisms based on cooperative effects between Min-proteins and on the exchange of Min-proteins between the cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic membrane have been proposed. The parameters characterizing the(More)
In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the Min proteins oscillate between the cell poles to select the cell center as division site. This dynamic pattern has been proposed to arise by self-organization of these proteins, and several models have suggested a reaction-diffusion type mechanism. Here, we found that the Min proteins spontaneously formed planar(More)
BACKGROUND Asymmetric division of the C. elegans zygote is due to the posterior-directed movement of the mitotic spindle during metaphase and anaphase. During this movement along the anterior-posterior axis, the spindle oscillates transversely. These motions are thought to be driven by a force-generating complex-possibly containing the motor protein(More)
We present a physical analysis of the dynamics and mechanics of contractile actin rings. In particular, we analyze the dynamics of ring contraction during cytokinesis in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. We present a general analysis of force balances and material exchange and estimate the relevant parameter values. We show that on a microscopic level(More)
In Escherichia coli, the pole-to-pole oscillation of the Min proteins directs septum formation to midcell, which is required for symmetric cell division. In vitro, protein waves emerge from the self-organization of MinD, a membrane-binding ATPase, and its activator MinE. For wave propagation, the proteins need to cycle through states of collective membrane(More)
Developing cells acquire positional information by reading the graded distribution of morphogens. In Drosophila, the Dpp morphogen forms a long-range concentration gradient by spreading from a restricted source in the developing wing. It has been assumed that Dpp spreads by extracellular diffusion. Under this assumption, the main role of endocytosis in(More)
Self-organization of proteins in space and time is of crucial importance for the functioning of cellular processes. Often, this organization takes place in the presence of strong random fluctuations due to the small number of molecules involved. We report on stochastic switching of the Min-protein distributions between the two cell halves in short(More)
We develop a general theory for active viscoelastic materials made of polar filaments. This theory is motivated by the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. The continuous consumption of a fuel leads to a non equilibrium state characterized by the generation of flows and stresses. Our theory can be applied to experiments in which cytoskeletal patterns are set in(More)
Oscillations play an important role in many dynamic cellular processes. They can emerge as the collective dynamic behavior of an ensemble of interacting components in the cell. Examples include oscillations in cytoskeletal structures such as the axonemes of cilia. Spontaneous oscillations of mechano-sensitive hair bundles have been shown to give frequency(More)