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Salmonella enterica, the cause of food poisoning and typhoid fever, induces actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and membrane ruffling to gain access into nonphagocytic cells, where it can replicate and avoid innate immune defenses. Here, we found that SopB, a phosphoinositide phosphatase that is delivered into host cells by a type III secretion system, was(More)
Many bacterial pathogens and symbionts utilize type III secretion systems to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells. These effector proteins have the capacity to modulate a large variety of cellular functions in a highly regulated manner. Here, we report that the phosphoinositide phosphatase SopB, a Salmonella Typhimurium type III secreted(More)
The Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) encodes proteins thought to compose a type VI secretion system (T6SS) that is required for the intracellular growth of Francisella novicida. In this work we used deletion mutagenesis and genetic complementation to determine that the intracellular growth of F. novicida was dependent on 14 of the 18 genes in the FPI.(More)
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a host range variant of a feline virus that acquired the ability to infect dogs through changes in its capsid protein. Canine and feline viruses both use the feline transferrin receptor (TfR) to infect feline cells, and here we show that CPV infects canine cells through its ability to specifically bind the canine TfR. Receptor(More)
A decrease in chondrocyte numbers is one characteristic of osteoarthritic cartilage. This decrease may be the result of apoptosis or other forms of cell death induced by mechanical damage. Furthermore, cell death may contribute to the structural and metabolic changes found in osteoarthritic cartilage. Therefore, we investigated cell viability and the mode(More)
Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and its host range variant, canine parvovirus (CPV), can bind the feline transferrin receptor (TfR), while only CPV binds to the canine TfR. Introducing two CPV-specific changes into FPV (at VP2 residues 93 and 323) endowed that virus with the canine TfR binding property and allowed canine cell infection, although neither(More)
The past few years have seen major advances in our understanding of the controls of evolution, host range and cell tropism of parvoviruses. Notable findings have included the identification of the transferrin receptor TfR as the cell surface receptor for canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus, and also the finding that specific binding to the(More)
Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) capsids bind to the transferrin receptors (TfRs) of their hosts and use these receptors to infect cells. The binding is partially host specific, as FPV binds only to the feline TfR, while CPV binds to both the canine and feline TfRs. The host-specific binding is controlled by a combination of(More)
Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) differ in their ability to infect dogs and dog cells. Canine cell infection is a specific property of CPV and depends on the ability of the virus to bind the canine transferrin receptor (TfR), as well as other unidentified factors. Three regions in the capsid structure, located around VP2 residues(More)
The feline and canine transferrin receptors (TfRs) bind canine parvovirus to host cells and mediate rapid capsid uptake and infection. The TfR and its ligand transferrin have well-described pathways of endocytosis and recycling. Here we tested several receptor-dependent steps in infection for their role in virus infection of cells. Deletions of cytoplasmic(More)