Karolina Nader

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Separate brain manipulations double dissociate two motivational mechanisms underlying the rewarding effects of opiates. Lesions of the brain stem tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus block the rewarding properties of morphine in drug-naive, but not in drug-dependent, rats. Neuroleptics (which block the action of the neurotransmitter dopamine) abolished opiate(More)
In drug-naive rats, the rewarding effects of morphine are blocked by lesions of the tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP), but not by neuroleptics. In dependent rats (chronically treated with morphine), morphine reward is blocked by neuroleptics, but not by TPP lesions. Just as this activation of opiate receptors in naive versus dependent rats produces(More)
The population of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons is believed to be a primary site at which opiates produce their rewarding effects. Using an unbiased, counterbalanced place conditioning paradigm, we reexamined the contribution made by these cells to the rewarding properties of morphine. Rats were conditioned such that distinct environments were paired with(More)
The application of neurobiological tools to behavioral questions has produced a number of working models of the mechanisms mediating the rewarding and aversive properties of stimuli. The authors review and compare three models that differ in the nature and number of the processes identified. The dopamine hypothesis, a single system model, posits that the(More)
The researchers studied whether 2 separate motivational systems in the brain underlie the rewarding effects of morphine. The brainstem tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP) is involved in mediating the motivational effects of opiates in nondeprived (drug-naive) rats, whereas dopamine transmission is necessary in mediating the motivational effects of(More)
Although the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) has been suggested to play a role in activity-dependent gene expression and mediate plasticity-associated structural changes in the hippocampus, no unequivocal evidence has been provided for its role in brain pathology, such as epilepsy. A genome-wide program of activity-induced genes that are(More)
There has been a long debate as to whether opioids are sought for withdrawal relief or for their ability to serve as incentives in their own right. We suggest that independent motivational systems mediate the rewarding effects of opioids in the nondependent state and in the physically dependent/withdrawal state. In the opioid-dependent state and the(More)
Patients with recurrent malignant brain cancer, who were receiving gene therapy by intracerebral injection of murine retroviral vector producer cells (VPCs), were monitored for the presence of replication-competent retrovirus (RCR). RCR sequences were not detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the 608 peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) samples(More)
The researchers asked whether clonidine, an alpha 2-noradrenergic agonist, would block selectively the motivational effects of opiate withdrawal and whether clonidine's effects would respect the boundary between nondeprived and deprived motivational states. In a place conditioning paradigm, clonidine (0.05 mg/kg ip) blocked the rewarding effects of morphine(More)
Replication-deficient amphotropic retrovirus vectors (RV) or RV-producer cells are being developed for a variety of human gene therapy strategies. One of the hurdles to in vivo use of these agents is their inactivation by components of human serum. Murine leukemia viruses (MLV), from which most current RV are derived, are known to be inactivated by human(More)