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Knock-out mutants of Streptococcus gordonii Challis were constructed and assayed for binding to extracellular matrix proteins (EMPs) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It was shown that (i) the mutant lacking the cell wall polysaccharide receptor could no longer bind type I and type II collagen, (ii) the mutant lacking the fibronectin-binding(More)
Members of the Camelidae family produce immunoglobulins devoid of light chains. We have characterized variable domains of these heavy chain antibodies, the VHH, from llamas immunized with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein gp120 in order to identify VHH that can inhibit HIV-1 infection. To increase the chances of isolating(More)
The HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 takes advantage of the high-mannose clusters on its surface to target the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) on dendritic cells. Mimicking the cluster presentation of oligomannosides on the virus surface is a strategy for designing carbohydrate-based(More)
After our first observation of codon context effects in missense suppression ( Murgola & Pagel , 1983), we measured the suppression of missense mutations at two positions in trpA in Escherichia coli. The suppressible codons in the trpA messenger RNA were the lysine codons, AAA and AAG, and the glutamic acid codons, GAA and GAG. The mRNA sites of the codons(More)
RNA sites that contain unpaired or mismatched nucleotides can be interaction sites for other macromolecules. C1054, a virtually universally conserved nucleotide in the 16 S (small subunit) ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli, is part of a highly conserved bulge in helix 34, which has been located at the decoding site of the ribosome. This helix has been(More)
We have isolated an unusual codon-specific translational suppressor in Escherichia coli. The suppressor resulted from a spontaneous mutation in a chromosomal gene during a selection for suppressors of the auxotrophic nonsense mutation trpA(UGA211). The suppressor allows readthrough of UGA mutations at two positions in trpA and at two sites in bacteriophage(More)
Mannose-binding C-type lectin receptors, expressed on Langerhans cells and subepithelial dendritic cells (DCs) of cervico-vaginal tissues, play an important role in HIV-1 capture and subsequent dissemination to lymph nodes. DC-SIGN has been implicated in both productive infection of DCs and the DC-mediated trans infection of CD4(+) T cells that occurs in(More)
The base sequence around nonsense codons affects the efficiency of nonsense codon suppression. Published data, comparing different nonsense sites in a mRNA, implicate the two bases downstream of the nonsense codon as major determinants of suppression efficiency. However, the results we report here indicate that the nature of the contiguous upstream codon(More)
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common disease affecting oral mucosae. Etiology is unknown, but several factors have been implicated, all of which influence the composition of microbiota residing on oral mucosae, which in turn modulates immunity and thereby affects disease progression. Although no individual pathogens have been conclusively(More)
Beginning with a missense suppressor tRNA and a nonsense suppressor tRNA, both in Escherichia coli and each containing an extra nucleotide in the anticodon loop, we generated new suppressors in vivo by spontaneous deletion of specific nucleotides from the anticodon loop. In one experiment, the new suppressor was generated by a double mutational event, base(More)