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A particular sequence of patterns, 'gaps→labyrinth→spots', occurs with decreasing precipitation in previously reported numerical simulations of partial differential equation dryland vegetation models. These observations have led to the suggestion that this sequence of patterns can serve as an early indicator of desertification in some ecosystems. Because(More)
The use of natural dyes as an alternative to synthetic dyes has attracted increasing attention in view of hazards and environmental pollution caused by synthetic dyes and pigments. Natural dye was extracted from Casuarina equisetifolia bark, which hitherto was treated as waste material. The dye uptake and fixation as well as the influence of mordants on the(More)
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