Karlene A Cimprich

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Genome maintenance is a constant concern for cells, and a coordinated response to DNA damage is required to maintain cellular viability and prevent disease. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and RAD3-related (ATR) protein kinases act as master regulators of the DNA-damage response by signalling to control cell-cycle transitions, DNA(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor protein is activated and phosphorylated on serine-15 in response to various DNA damaging agents. The gene product mutated in ataxia telangiectasia, ATM, acts upstream of p53 in a signal transduction pathway initiated by ionizing radiation. Immunoprecipitated ATM had intrinsic protein kinase activity and phosphorylated p53 on(More)
Replication stress is a complex phenomenon that has serious implications for genome stability, cell survival and human disease. Generation of aberrant replication fork structures containing single-stranded DNA activates the replication stress response, primarily mediated by the kinase ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related). Along with its downstream effectors, ATR(More)
The ATR-dependent DNA damage response pathway can respond to a diverse group of lesions as well as inhibitors of DNA replication. Using the Xenopus egg extract system, we show that lesions induced by UV irradiation and cis-platinum cause the functional uncoupling of MCM helicase and DNA polymerase activities, an event previously shown for aphidicolin.(More)
Signaling pathways that respond to DNA damage are essential for the maintenance of genome stability and are linked to many diseases, including cancer. Here, a genome-wide siRNA screen was employed to identify additional genes involved in genome stabilization by monitoring phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX, an early mark of DNA damage. We(More)
ATR, a phosphatidylinositol kinase-related protein homologous to ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), is important for the survival of human cells following many forms of DNA damage. Expression of a kinase-inactive allele of ATR (ATRkd) in human fibroblasts causes increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR), cis-platinum and methyl methanesulfonate,(More)
We have analyzed how single-strand DNA gaps affect DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts. DNA lesions generated by etoposide, a DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor, or by exonuclease treatment activate a DNA damage checkpoint that blocks initiation of plasmid and chromosomal DNA replication. The checkpoint is abrogated by caffeine and requires ATR, but not(More)
A family of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, DNA recombination, and the detection of DNA damage has been recently identified. One of the members of this family, human ATM, is defective in the cells of patients with ataxia telangiectasia and is involved in detection and response of cells to damaged DNA. Other members include Mei-41 (Drosophila(More)
R-loops, consisting of an RNA-DNA hybrid and displaced single-stranded DNA, are physiological structures that regulate various cellular processes occurring on chromatin. Intriguingly, changes in R-loop dynamics have also been associated with DNA damage accumulation and genome instability; however, the mechanisms underlying R-loop-induced DNA damage remain(More)
Postreplication repair (PRR) pathways play important roles in restarting stalled replication forks and regulating mutagenesis. In yeast, Rad5-mediated damage avoidance and Rad18-mediated translesion synthesis (TLS) are two forms of PRR. Two Rad5-related proteins, SHPRH and HLTF, have been identified in mammalian cells, but their specific roles in PRR are(More)