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PURPOSE To quantify the degree of association between juvenile myopia and parental myopia, near work, and school achievement. METHODS Refractive error, parental refractive status, current level of near activities (assumed working distance-weighted hours per week spent studying, reading for pleasure, watching television, playing video games or working on(More)
OBJECTIVE To report the baseline prevalence of refractive error in the study population. DESIGN A multicenter, longitudinal, observational study of refractive error and ocular development in children from 4 ethnic groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study population included 2523 children (534 African American, 491 Asian, 463 Hispanic, and 1035 white) in(More)
PURPOSE To identify whether parental history of myopia and/or parent-reported children's visual activity levels can predict juvenile-onset myopia. METHODS Survey-based data from Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia subjects from 1989 to 2001 were used to predict future myopia. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, and(More)
PURPOSE To describe the baseline findings in patients enrolled in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study. METHODS This is a longitudinal observational study of 1209 patients with keratoconus enrolled at 16 clinical centers. Its main outcome measures are corneal scarring, visual acuity, keratometry, and quality of life. (More)
PURPOSE To evaluate refractive error, axial length, and relative peripheral refractive error before, during the year of, and after the onset of myopia in children who became myopic compared with emmetropes. METHODS Subjects were 605 children 6 to 14 years of age who became myopic (at least -0.75 D in each meridian) and 374 emmetropic (between -0.25 D and(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the association between myopia progression and time spent outdoors and in various visual activities. METHODS Subjects were 835 myopes (both principal meridians -0.75 diopters [D] or more myopia by cycloplegic autorefraction) in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study with both(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate accommodative lag before, during the year of, and after the onset of myopia in children who became myopic, compared with emmetropes. METHODS The subjects were 568 children who became myopic (at least -0.75 D in each meridian) and 539 children who were emmetropic (between -0.25 D and +1.00 D in each meridian at all visits) participating(More)
PURPOSE To examine how the response AC/A ratio (the amount of accommodative convergence per unit of accommodative response) varies as a function of refractive error and age, to determine whether it is a risk factor for the onset of myopia, and to examine the relation between ocular structural features and the AC/A ratio. METHODS Accommodation was(More)
PURPOSE The repeatability of individual dry eye diagnostic tests has been reported in the literature on normal samples of patients and to a lesser degree in dry eye patients. In this study, the repeatability of a battery of clinical diagnostic tests for dry eye was assessed on mild to moderate dry eye patients. METHODS A dry eye examination was performed(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the relation between ocular shape and refractive error in children. METHODS Ocular shape was assessed by measuring relative peripheral refractive error (the difference between the spherical equivalent cycloplegic autorefraction 30 degrees in the nasal visual field and in primary gaze) for the right eye of 822 children aged 5 to 14(More)