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Taking neuromodulation as a mechanism underlying emotions , this paper investigates how such a mechanism can bias an artificial neural network towards exploration of new courses of action, as seems to be the case in positive emotions, or exploitation of known possibilities, as in negative emotions such as predatory fear. We use neural networks of spiking(More)
In the brain, different levels of neuro-active substances modulate the behaviour of neurons that have receptors for them, such as sensitivity-to-input, Koch (1999). An artificial neural network is described that learns which actions have the immediate effect of minimising cost and maximising reward for an agent. Two versions of the network are compared, one(More)
A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge The content must not be changed in any way or reproduced in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holder(s) When referring to this work, full bibliographic details must be given This paper presents the findings from one of(More)
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