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This study documents the identity of a calcium- regulated membrane guanylate cyclase transduction system in the photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic region. The guanylate cyclase is the previously characterized ROS-GC1 from the rod outer segments and its modulator is S100beta. S100beta senses increments in free Ca(2+) and stimulates the cyclase. Specificity of(More)
Vertebrate phototransduction depends on the reciprocal relationship between two-second messengers, cyclic GMP and Ca(2+). The concentration of both is reciprocally regulated including the dynamic synthesis of cyclic GMP by a membrane bound guanylate cyclase. Different from hormone receptor guanylate cyclases, the cyclases operating in phototransduction are(More)
Over many years until the middle of the 1980s, the main problem in vision research had been the mechanism of transducing the visual signal from photobleached rhodopsin to the cationic channels in the plasma membrane of a photoreceptor to trigger the electrophysiological response of the cell. After cGMP was proven to be the secondary messenger, the main(More)
Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) are neuronal calcium sensors that activate membrane bound guanylate cyclases (EC of vertebrate photoreceptor cells when cytoplasmic Ca2+ decreases during illumination. GCAPs contain four EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs, but the first EF-hand is nonfunctional. It was concluded that for GCAP-2, the loss of(More)
Rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC) transduction system is a central component of the Ca(2+)-sensitive phototransduction machinery. The system is composed of two parts: Ca(2+) sensor guanylate cyclase activating protein (GCAP) and ROS-GC. GCAP senses Ca(2+) impulses and inhibits the cyclase. This operational feature of the cyclase is(More)
Guanylyl cyclases (GCs) regulate many physiological processes by catalyzing the synthesis of the second messenger cGMP. The GC family consists of seven particulate GCs (pGCs) and a nitric oxide-activated soluble GC (sGC). Rat sGC α1β1 possesses much broader substrate specificity than previously assumed. Moreover, the exotoxins CyaA from Bordetella pertussis(More)
Cholesterol-rich membranes or detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) have recently been isolated from bovine rod outer segments and were shown to contain several signaling proteins such as, for example, transducin and its effector, cGMP-phosphodiesterase PDE6. Here we report the presence of rhodopsin kinase and recoverin in DRMs that were isolated in either(More)
Recoverin is an EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein that is suggested to control the activity of the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK-1 or rhodopsin kinase in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. It undergoes a Ca(2+)-myristoyl switch when Ca(2+) binds to EF-hand 2 and 3. We investigated the mechanism of this switch by the use of point mutations in EF-hand 2 (E85Q)(More)
Recoverin is a Ca(2+)-regulated signal transduction modulator expressed in the vertebrate retina that has been implicated in visual adaptation. An intriguing feature of recoverin is a cluster of charged residues at its C terminus, the functional significance of which is largely unclear. To elucidate the impact of this segment on recoverin structure and(More)
Calcium-signaling in cells requires a fine-tuned system of calcium-transport proteins involving ion channels, exchangers, and ion-pumps but also calcium-sensor proteins and their targets. Thus, control of physiological responses very often depends on incremental changes of the cytoplasmic calcium concentration, which are sensed by calcium-binding proteins(More)