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In visual transduction, guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) activate the membrane-bound guanylate cyclase 1 (ROS-GC1) to synthesize cGMP under conditions of low cytoplasmic [Ca2+]free. GCAPs are neuronal Ca2+-binding proteins with three functional EF-hands and a consensus site for N-terminal myristoylation. GCAP-1 and GCAP-2 regulated ROS-GC1(More)
This study documents the identity of a calcium- regulated membrane guanylate cyclase transduction system in the photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic region. The guanylate cyclase is the previously characterized ROS-GC1 from the rod outer segments and its modulator is S100beta. S100beta senses increments in free Ca(2+) and stimulates the cyclase. Specificity of(More)
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy is a technique to study protein-protein interactions in real time; however, application of SPR spectroscopy for investigations of membrane receptors is difficult with respect to functional and uniform immobilization of receptors on a biosensor surface. In the current study, we developed a simple, direct,(More)
Over many years until the middle of the 1980s, the main problem in vision research had been the mechanism of transducing the visual signal from photobleached rhodopsin to the cationic channels in the plasma membrane of a photoreceptor to trigger the electrophysiological response of the cell. After cGMP was proven to be the secondary messenger, the main(More)
Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) are neuronal calcium sensors that activate membrane bound guanylate cyclases (EC 4.6.1.2.) of vertebrate photoreceptor cells when cytoplasmic Ca2+ decreases during illumination. GCAPs contain four EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs, but the first EF-hand is nonfunctional. It was concluded that for GCAP-2, the loss of(More)
Vertebrate phototransduction depends on the reciprocal relationship between two-second messengers, cyclic GMP and Ca(2+). The concentration of both is reciprocally regulated including the dynamic synthesis of cyclic GMP by a membrane bound guanylate cyclase. Different from hormone receptor guanylate cyclases, the cyclases operating in phototransduction are(More)
Rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC) transduction system is a central component of the Ca(2+)-sensitive phototransduction machinery. The system is composed of two parts: Ca(2+) sensor guanylate cyclase activating protein (GCAP) and ROS-GC. GCAP senses Ca(2+) impulses and inhibits the cyclase. This operational feature of the cyclase is(More)
Guanylyl cyclases (GCs) regulate many physiological processes by catalyzing the synthesis of the second messenger cGMP. The GC family consists of seven particulate GCs (pGCs) and a nitric oxide-activated soluble GC (sGC). Rat sGC α1β1 possesses much broader substrate specificity than previously assumed. Moreover, the exotoxins CyaA from Bordetella pertussis(More)
Two membrane bound guanylate cyclases are expressed in vertebrate photoreceptor cells. They serve a key function in photoreceptor physiology as they synthesize the intracellular transmitter of photoexcitation guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Both cyclases named ROS-GC1 and ROS-GC2 form a subclass of membrane bound cyclases and differ in many(More)
NCS (neuronal Ca2+ sensor) proteins belong to a family of calmodulin-related EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins which, in spite of a high degree of structural similarity, are able to selectively recognize and regulate individual effector enzymes in a Ca2+-dependent manner. NCS proteins vary at their C-termini, which could therefore serve as structural control(More)