Karl Walter Bock

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This review represents an update of the nomenclature system for the UDP glucuronosyltransferase gene superfamily, which is based on divergent evolution. Since the previous review in 1991, sequences of many related UDP glycosyltransferases from lower organisms have appeared in the database, which expand our database considerably. At latest count, in animals,(More)
Several novel UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes, mainly UDP glucuronosyltransferases, have been identified in the human, mouse and rat genomes and in other mammalian species. This review provides an update of the UGT nomenclature to include these new genes and prevent the confusion that arises when the same gene is given different names. The new genes are(More)
The impact of gender, use of oral contraceptive steroids (OCS), coffee consumption and of smoking on the metabolism of sparteine, caffeine, and paracetamol was studied in 194 randomly selected subjects (98 male and 95 female). Thirty-eight of the male volunteers were cigarette smokers, 40 of the female subjects were smokers and/or users of OCS. The(More)
Coordinate regulation of Phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes and conjugate transporters by nuclear receptors suggests that these proteins evolved to an integrated biotransformation system. Two major groups of ligand-activated nuclear receptors/xenosensors evolved: the Ah receptor (activated by aryl hydrocarbons and drugs such as omeprazole) and type 2(More)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widespread environmental contaminant and the most potent agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Persistent activation of the AhR has been shown to be responsible for most TCDD-mediated toxic responses, including liver tumour promotion. However, the mechanisms responsible for these complex toxic(More)
Glucuronidation reactions catalysed by rat liver microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase are differentially inducible by 3-methylcholanthrene and phenobarbital. To elucidate the molecular basis of this functional heterogeneity the enzyme was purified from livers of rats pretreated with the inducing agents. Using cholate solubilization, chromatography on(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with important roles in metabolic adaptation, normal physiology and dioxin toxicology. Metabolic adaptation is based on coordinate regulation of a set of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), termed AhR battery. Coordination is achieved by AhR/Arnt-binding to XREs (xenobiotic(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and member of the bHLH/PAS (basic Helix-Loop-Helix/Per-Arnt-Sim) family of chemosensors and developmental regulators. It represents a multifunctional molecular switch regulating endo- and xenobiotic metabolism as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Physiologic(More)
Polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes are frequently associated with diseases and side effects of drugs. Recently, a TATA box mutation of UGT1A1 (UGT1A1*28), a common genotype leading to Gilbert's syndrome, and several missense mutations of other UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1) family members have been described. Furthermore, co-occurrence of(More)