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Although there is an emerging consensus that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) are involved in semantic memory, it is currently unclear which specific parts of this region are implicated in semantic representation. Answers to this question are difficult to glean from the existing literature for 3 reasons: 1) lesions of relevant patient groups tend to(More)
The neural basis of semantic memory generates considerable debate. Semantic dementia results from bilateral anterior temporal lobe (ATL) atrophy and gives rise to a highly specific impairment of semantic memory, suggesting that this region is a critical neural substrate for semantic processing. Recent rTMS experiments with neurologically-intact participants(More)
Single shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences are currently the most commonly used sequences for diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as they allow relatively high signal to noise with rapid acquisition time. A major drawback of EPI is the substantial geometric distortion and signal loss that can occur due to(More)
Most contemporary theories of semantic memory assume that concepts are formed from the distillation of information arising in distinct sensory and verbal modalities. The neural basis of this distillation or convergence of information was the focus of this study. Specifically, we explored two commonly posed hypotheses: (a) that the human middle temporal(More)
Probabilistic tractography methods that use Monte Carlo sampling of voxelwise fibre orientation probability density functions suffer from distance-related artefacts due to the propagation of uncertainty along the tract path. These are manifested as a preferential weighting of regions close to the tracking start point at the expense of more distant(More)
Magnetic susceptibility differences at tissue interfaces lead to signal loss in conventional gradient-echo (GE) EPI. This poses a problem for fMRI in language and memory paradigms, which activate the most affected regions. Two methods proposed to overcome this are spin-echo EPI and dual GE EPI, where two EPI read-outs are serially collected at a short and(More)
This work shows that multi-fibre reconstruction techniques , such as Persistent Angular Structure (PAS) MRI or QBall Imaging, provide much more information than just discrete fibre orientations, which is all that previous trac-tography algorithms exploit from them. We show that the shapes of the peaks of the functions output by multiple-fibre reconstruction(More)
Previous studies suggest that the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not only associated with regional gray matter damage but also with abnormal functional integration of different brain regions by disconnection mechanisms. A measure of anatomical connectivity (anatomical connectivity mapping or ACM) can be obtained by initiating(More)
Bootstrapping of repeated diffusion-weighted image datasets enables nonparametric quantification of the uncertainty in the inferred fiber orientation. The wild bootstrap and the residual bootstrap are model-based residual resampling methods which use a single dataset. Previously, the wild bootstrap method has been presented as an alternative to conventional(More)
We evaluate and discuss the relevance of fiber anisotropy in estimating the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the human brain. Finite element simulations were carried out on a three-dimensional model of the head that included anisotropic conductivity information derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The results show that anisotropy(More)