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and two anonymous reviewers from Management Science who provided helpful and insightful comments on earlier versions of this paper. Abstract Engineering design often involves a very complex set of relationships among a large number of coupled problems. It is this complex coupling that leads to iteration among the various engineering tasks in a large(More)
User design offers tantalizing potential benefits to manufacturers and consumers, including a closer match of products to user preferences, which should result in a higher willingness to pay for goods and services. There are two fundamental approaches that can be taken to user design: parameter-based systems and needs-based systems. With parameter-based(More)
I n a wide variety of settings, organizations generate a number of possible solutions to a problem—ideas—and then select a few for further development. We examine the effectiveness of two group structures for such tasks—the team structure, in which the group works together in time and space, and the hybrid structure, in which individuals first work(More)
Understanding the value of a product development project is central to a firm's choice of project portfolio. The value of a project to a firm depends not only on the project's properties but also on the other projects being developed by the firm. This is due to interactions with other projects in the portfolio that address the same consumer need and with(More)
Substituting bicycling for driving is frequently promoted as a means of reducing energy consumption and the associated degradation of the environment. This paper estimates the magnitude of this effect. The analysis takes account of the first-order effects due to the dramatically lower energy requirements of transportation by bicycle relative to automobiles.(More)