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The impurity of measures is considered as cause of erroneous interpretations of observed relationships. This paper concentrates on impurity with respect to the relationship between working memory and fluid intelligence. The means for the identification of impurity was the fixed-links model, which enabled the decomposition of variance into experimental and(More)
INTRODUCTION Encephalitis is a rare complication of primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in immunocompetent children. METHODS The clinical and laboratory findings of two girls with VZV-related encephalitis are reported. RESULTS Both children presented with focal epileptic seizures, corresponding to cortical/subcortical as well as white matter(More)
An investigation of the cognitive bias observed in optimism and the influence of optimism on psychological well-being was conducted. The cognitive bias was assumed to be related to the repressive style of information processing, represented by the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Social Desirability scale. Optimism and well-being(More)
In two experiments, the contributions of memory and attention processes to the cognitive abilities of reasoning and perceptual speed were investigated. Two measures of speed of information retrieval from long-term and short-term memory (Posner paradigm, Sternberg paradigm) and two attention measures (continuous attention test, attention switching test) were(More)
Fixed-links models enable the investigation of experimental effects in combination with processing strategies in the framework of repeated measures designs. The consideration of different processing strategies is reasonable whenever the task requirements can be met in different ways. Effects due to specific processing strategies become obvious in comparing(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Although fluid intelligence and complex learning are conceptualized differently and assessed by apparently different measures, both theoretical accounts and empirical evidence suggest a relationship between the two constructs. In this study, major working memory aspects including the storage capacity and executive(More)
In a study examining the influence of cognitive capacity limitation on intellectual ability, 124 university students were subjected to 7 computer-based tests in which cognitive demands were manipulated by varying the number of required ordering, arithmetic, and memory operations, respectively. Intelligence data were obtained by forming a composite score(More)
Evidence of cognitively controlled processes influencing preattentive processes is provided. In the first experiment, preattentive processing associated with a discrimination task was compared with that associated with a reaction task. An increase in processing time due to preattentive processes was only found for the discrimination task. In the second(More)