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The Visible Human Database provides a complete submillimeter photographic and radiological description of both a male and a female cadaver. The Center for Human Simulation has developed real-time algorithms that allow a user to wield a virtual scalpel and produce arbitrary cuts into the reconstructed body. Real-time interaction is achieved by producing the(More)
Virtual reality is new technology that is finding application in many facets of orthopaedics. We will describe an application of virtual reality in orthopaedic research. Component placement in total knee arthroplasty depends on identification of anatomic landmarks about the knee. We surmised significant interobserver variability occurs in the identification(More)
The University of Colorado's Center for Human Simulation has developed fundamental algorithms for real-time visual and haptic interaction with polygonal and voxel base data sets, including those derived from the Visible Human Dataset. These algorithms are currently being used to create prototype simulators for surgery, needle insertion (anesthesiology,(More)
BACKGROUND Virtual reality (VR) simulation has been a requirement for airline and military pilots for decades and is only now being integrated into surgical training programs. Thus far, orthopaedic training programs have been slow to adopt VR training. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES We therefore asked (1) how VR has worked for other surgical specialties; (2) what VR(More)
Computer-generated virtual environments bring the potential to practice complex mental and physical tasks in safe and controlled conditions. When applied to medical procedures, they could allow students to gain experience with a wide variety of cases, in optimal order, and with no patient risk. The United States military is funding the development of a(More)
BACKGROUND Several virtual reality simulators have been developed to assist orthopaedic surgeons in acquiring the skills necessary to perform arthroscopic surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the construct validity of the ArthroSim virtual reality arthroscopy simulator by evaluating whether skills acquired through increased experience in the(More)
BACKGROUND There is a paucity of articles in the surgical literature demonstrating transfer validity (transfer of training). The purpose of this study was to assess whether skills learned on the ArthroSim virtual-reality arthroscopic knee simulator transferred to greater skill levels in the operating room. METHODS Postgraduate year-3 orthopaedic residents(More)