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With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and(More)
BACKGROUND Traditional medicine use has been reported is common among individuals with moderate and advanced HIV disease. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the use of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TCAM) for HIV patients prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy in three public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South(More)
BACKGROUND Successful antiretroviral treatment is dependent on sustaining high rates of adherence. In the southern African context, only a handful of studies (both quantitative and qualitative) have looked at the determinants including a health behaviour theory of adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The aim of this study is to assess factors including the(More)
Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with(More)
The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in low income African countries (Ghana, Uganda). The total sample included 5,613 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples from two African countries. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the(More)
The purpose of this study is to assess patients consulting full-time traditional health practitioners (THPs) and the practice of THPs after they had been trained on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) prevention and care. The sample included 222 patients interviewed when exiting a THP's practice (n=17) in purposefully(More)
BACKGROUND Over 30% of women and men in the South African national HIV household of 2005 indicated that they had previously been tested for HIV (of which 91% were aware of their test results). This paper seeks to describe the associations between socio-demographic, behavioural and social characteristics and knowledge of HIV status among a nationally(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate family planning needs, knowledge of HIV transmission and HIV disclosure in a cohort sample that had undergone PMTCT in a resource poor setting. Five public clinics implementing PMTCT from Qaukeni Local Service Area, O.R. Tambo District in the Eastern Cape. The sample at postnatal care consisted of 758 women with(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effect of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by lay counsellors during routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) public service in Mpumalanga, South Africa. METHODS A total of 488 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older, receiving(More)
BACKGROUND HIV is ravaging southern Africa, and HIV transmission risk behaviors are facilitated by alcohol use in sexual contexts. There are no known interventions that directly target HIV risk behavior among people who drink and are at risk for HIV in Africa. PURPOSE To test a behavioral risk reduction counseling intervention for use in sexually(More)