Karl Normington

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Two glucose-regulated proteins, GRP78 and GRP94, are major constituents of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammalian cells. These proteins are synthesized constitutively in detectable amounts under normal growth conditions; they can also be induced under a variety of conditions of stress including glucose starvation and treatment with drugs that inhibit(More)
The KAR2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for an essential chaperone protein (BiP) that is localized in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The high basal rate of transcription of KAR2 is increased transiently by heat shock: prolonged induction occurs when unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER. Three cis-acting elements in the KAR2 promoter(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells contains an abundant 78,000-Da protein (BiP) that is involved in the translocation, folding, and assembly of secretory and transmembrane proteins. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as in mammalian cells, BiP mRNA is synthesized at a high basal rate and is further induced by the presence of increased(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammalian cells contains a 78 kd protein (BiP) that is believed to assist in the folding of secretory and transmembrane proteins. We have used a cDNA encoding mouse BiP to isolate the homologous gene from S. cerevisiae, which encodes a sequence of 682 amino acids, 431 of which are identical to mouse BiP. Like its mammalian(More)
The enzyme steroid 5 alpha-reductase (5 alpha-reductase) catalyzes the reduction of delta 4,5 double bonds in a variety of substrates and is thought to play both catabolic and anabolic roles in steroid hormone metabolism. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding the rat type 2 isozyme of 5 alpha-reductase and compare the(More)
Cellular engineering studies in our group are directed at creating insulin-secreting cell lines that simulate the performance of the normal islet beta-cell. The strategy described in this article involves the stepwise stable introduction of genes relevant to beta-cell performance into the RIN 1046-38 insulinoma cell line, a process that we term "iterative(More)
In the accompanying article, we describe the creation of novel cell lines derived from RIN 1046-38 rat insulinoma cells by stable transfection with combinations of genes encoding human insulin, GLUT2, and glucokinase. Herein we describe the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism in these new cell lines. A cell line (betaG I/17) expressing(More)
Immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) associates transiently with various proteins destined for the secretory pathway. To investigate the relationship between BiP and the 78K (K = 10(3) Mr) glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), we have determined a partial amino acid sequence of purified mouse BiP and isolated and sequenced a full-length cDNA clone(More)
The enzyme steroid 5 alpha-reductase catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the more powerful androgen, dihydrotestosterone. We previously described the cloning of rat and human cDNAs that encode steroid 5 alpha-reductase and their expression in oocytes and cultured cells. Here, we report the isolation, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of(More)
The recently completed diabetes complications and control trial has highlighted the need for improvement of insulin delivery systems for treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Despite steady improvement in methods for islet and whole pancreas transplantation over the past three decades, the broad-scale applicability of these approaches remains(More)