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TGF-beta 1 is demonstrated to inhibit skin keratinocyte proliferation when added during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Human foreskin keratinocytes transformed with either HPV-16 or -18 or SV40, however, were resistant to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta 1. Since TGF-beta 1 appears to inhibit keratinocyte growth through down-regulation of c-myc,(More)
Clinical and epidemiological data have implicated the human papillomaviruses (HPVs) as having an etiologic role in some anogenital malignancies, with HPV-16 being most frequently (greater than 60%) detected in cervical carcinoma. HPV-16 is actively transcribed in the cancers; the most abundant transcripts map to the E6 and E7 early open reading frames.(More)
Deletions or mutations of the retinoblastoma gene, RB1, are common features of many tumors and tumor cell lines. Recently, the RB1 gene product, p105-RB, has been shown to form stable protein/protein complexes with the oncoproteins of two DNA tumor viruses, the adenovirus E1A proteins and the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen. Neither of these viruses(More)
Genomic instability is a hallmark of most human cancers including high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anogenital neoplasia. The two HPV-encoded oncoproteins, E6 and E7, can independently induce chromosomal abnormalities. We summarize the current state of knowledge concerning HPV-induced genomic instability and discuss its significance in the(More)
Human cervix cancer is caused by high-risk human papillomaviruses encoding E6 and E7 oncoproteins, each of which alter function of distinct targets regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. Here we determined the molecular contribution of E6 or E7 to neoplastic progression and malignant growth in a transgenic mouse model of cervical(More)
Genotypic differences greatly influence susceptibility and resistance to disease. Understanding genotype-phenotype relationships requires that phenotypes be viewed as manifestations of network properties, rather than simply as the result of individual genomic variations. Genome sequencing efforts have identified numerous germline mutations, and large(More)
Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships.(More)
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) DNA-binding proteins have been demonstrated to regulate tissue-specific transcription within multiple cell lineages. The Id family of helix-loop-helix proteins does not possess a basic DNA-binding domain and functions as a negative regulator of bHLH proteins. Overexpression of Id proteins within a variety of cell types has been(More)
We have investigated the functional integrity of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathway in five human squamous cell carcinoma lines. Elevated activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (cdk6), a pRB kinase, was detected in all five squamous cell carcinoma lines. Overexpression of the cdk6 protein was detected in one of the five cell lines. The cdk6-specific(More)