Karl Ludwig Rost

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Several procedures to monitor CYP1A2 activity in vivo by the use of caffeine as a probe have been proposed. They comprise caffeine clearance, based on both plasma and saliva concentrations, urinary metabolite ratios, the 13C-caffeine breath test, and the paraxanthine/caffeine ratio in plasma. The latter method is fast, simple, economical and restricted to(More)
Omeprazole induces hepatic cytochrome P-4501A2. In a previous study this effect was shown to be significant in vivo in 6 poor metabolizers, including 1 intermediate metabolizer, but not in 12 extensive metabolizers of S-mephenytoin after 7 days of treatment with 40 mg/day omeprazole. In this study, the specificity of the inducing potential of omeprazole was(More)
Omeprazole has been shown to induce cytochrome P450IA1 and P450IA2 activity in vitro. To reflect cytochrome P450IA2 (CYP1A2) activity in vivo, the 13C-[N-3-methyl]-caffeine breath test was conducted in 18 volunteers: 12 extensive metabolizers, one intermediate metabolizer, and five poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin. Breath tests were performed before(More)
Caffeine is used to phenotype subjects in vivo for the cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP1A2 and CYP2E1, and for N-acetyltransferase type 2 (NAT2). However, how much of the variation in phenotyping parameters may be attributed to variations in CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 activities has not been determined. Therefore, this study intraindividually compared enzyme activities(More)
S-Mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase (CYP2C19) is a genetically polymorphic cytochrome P450. A modified method for CYP2C19 phenotyping was evaluated in 174 healthy German volunteers and the results were compared with genotyping for the intron4/exon5 G-->A splice site mutation (m1) of CYP2C19, associated with the poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype. A smaller than usual(More)
A population kinetic analysis was carried out on sparse plasma gentamicin (GE) concentration data from 469 neonates obtained as part of a routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) programme in the hospital neonatology unit. The best predictors of the kinetic parameters of the monoexponential model, volume of distribution (Vd) and clearance (CL), were the(More)
INTRODUCTION This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the safety of the investigational cyanide antidote hydroxocobalamin. METHODS Four ascending dosing groups received intravenous doses of 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10 g hydroxocobalamin over 7.5 to 30 minutes at a constant infusion rate.(More)
BACKGROUND Omeprazole has previously been shown to induce hepatic cytochrome P4501A2 activity, as evidenced by an accelerated N-3-demethylation in the 13C-[N-3-methyl]-caffeine breath test. In this study we investigated whether the inducing potency of omeprazole can be quantified by the determination of urinary caffeine metabolite ratios, which are based on(More)
OBJECTIVES Valspodar is a P-glycoprotein modulator currently under development as a multidrug resistance reversal agent in clinical oncology. A multiple-dose drug interaction study was performed to assess the influence of valspodar on digoxin, a substrate for P-glycoprotein. METHODS Twelve healthy volunteers received an oral digoxin loading dose of 1 mg(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The kinetics of omeprazole and its primary metabolites 5'-hydroxyomeprazole and omeprazole sulfone were studied in healthy volunteers to evaluate omeprazole as a probe drug for the S-mephenytoin hydroxylase (CYP2C19) polymorphism. The plasma metabolic ratio obtained from the concentrations of omeprazole plus omeprazole sulfone over(More)