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Both low- and medium-pressure Hg lamps (LP and MP, respectively) were used as ultraviolet light (UV) sources to destroy N-nitrosodimethylamine in a synthetic "natural" water. The lamp performances were directly compared via the UV fluence-based rate constants, which demonstrates that LP and MP have virtually identical photonic efficiencies (fluence-based(More)
Uridine-cytidine kinases (UCK) have important roles for the phosphorylation of nucleoside analogs that are being investigated for possible use in chemotherapy of cancer. We have cloned the cDNA of two human UCKs. The approximately 30-kDa proteins, named UCK1 and UCK2, were expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to catalyze the phosphorylation of Urd and(More)
The degradation of three endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), bisphenol A, ethinyl estradiol, and estradiol, was investigated via ultraviolet (UV) radiation photolysis and the UV/hydrogen peroxide advanced oxidation process (AOP). These EDCs have been detected at low levels in wastewaters and surface waters in both the United States and European(More)
We examined the effects of chlorine disinfection on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in secondary-treated wastewater to determine whether such treatment might induce these bacteria into the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. In this state, cells lose culturability but retain viability and the potential to revert to the metabolically active(More)
AIMS  To determine inactivation profiles of three human norovirus (NoV) surrogate viruses and coliphage MS2 by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and the protective effect of cell association on UV inactivation. METHODS AND RESULTS   The inactivation rate for cell-free virus or intracellular echovirus 12 was determined by exposure to 254-nm UV light at fluence(More)
The photodegradation of chlorine-based disinfectants NH(2)Cl, HOCl, and OCl(-) under UV irradiation from low- (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) Hg lamps was studied. The quantum yields of aqueous chlorine and chloramine under 254 nm (LP UV) irradiation were greater than 1.2 mol Es(-1) for free chlorine in the pH range of 4-10 and 0.4 mol Es(-1) for(More)
Adenovirus is a focus of the water treatment community because of its resistance to standard, monochromatic low-pressure (LP) UV irradiation. Recent research has shown that polychromatic, medium-pressure (MP) UV sources are more effective than LP UV for disinfection of adenovirus when viral inactivation is measured using cell culture infectivity assays;(More)
The human and animal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a waterborne risk to public health because the cysts are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Given the recently recognized efficacy of UV irradiation against Cryptosporidium(More)
Adenovirus is recognized as the most UV-resistant waterborne pathogen of concern to public health microbiologists. The U.S. EPA has stipulated that a UV fluence (dose) of 186 mJ cm(-2) is required for 4-log inactivation credit in water treatment. However, all adenovirus inactivation data to date published in the peer-reviewed literature have been based on(More)
Kinetics and degradation products resulting from the application of UV and UV/H(2)O(2) to the US EPA Contaminant Candidate List pesticide diazinon were studied. Batch experiments were conducted with both monochromatic (low pressure [LP] UV 253.7 nm) and polychromatic (medium pressure [MP] UV 200-300 nm) UV sources alone or in the presence of up to 50 mg(More)