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BACKGROUND Recent data from antenatal clinic (ANC) surveillance and general population surveys suggest substantial declines in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in Zimbabwe. We assessed the contributions of rising mortality, falling HIV incidence and sexual behaviour change to the decline in HIV prevalence. METHODS Comprehensive review and(More)
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that two-thirds of all STIs worldwide occur in young people--teenagers and those in their early twenties (WHO 1993, WHO 1995). The provision of STI services to these age groups should therefore be high on the agenda of STI programme planners and adolescent/young people's health programmers alike. However,(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe recent patterns and trends in the HIV epidemic in eastern Europe. METHODS AIDS programme managers and epidemiologists of 23 countries were contacted and requested to provide national HIV surveillance data. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS/World Health Organisation country fact sheets were reviewed and analysed, and this(More)
It has been widely believed that, by combining the services for preventing and treating sexually transmitted infections (STI) with those for family planning (FP), STI coverage would increase and the combined service would be of higher quality and more responsive to the needs of women. So far, there is little concrete evidence that integration has had such(More)
Extracts of the information in the document may be reviewed, reproduced or translated for research or private study but not for sale or for use in conjunction with commercial purposes. Any use of information from this document should be accompanied by an acknowledgement of WHO and GTZ as the source. Reproduction or translation of substantial portions of(More)
OBJECTIVE Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated with injecting drug use has been reported in at least 98 countries and territories worldwide. There is evidence that new epidemics are emerging in different regions, including Eastern Europe, Latin American, and the eastern Mediterranean. The authors provide a global overview of the situation(More)
OBJECTIVES To review the literature on the potential efficiency gains of integrating HIV services with other health services. DESIGN Systematic literature review. Search of electronic databases, manual searching and snowball sampling. Studies that presented results on cost, efficiency or cost-effectiveness of integrated HIV services were included,(More)
OBJECTIVE To synthesize the data available--on costs, efficiency and economies of scale and scope--for the six basic programmes of the UNAIDS Strategic Investment Framework, to inform those planning the scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS The relevant peer-reviewed and "grey" literature from(More)