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Visual excitation in retinal rod cells is mediated by a cascade that leads to the amplified hydrolysis of cyclic GMP (cGMP) and the consequent closure of cGMP-activated cation-specific channels in the plasma membrane. Recovery of the dark state requires the resynthesis of cGMP, which is catalysed by guanylate cyclase, an axoneme-associated enzyme. The(More)
The neural responses of 456 single units were recorded in parietal cortex of behaving monkeys during a haptic delayed matching-to-sample task. (1) In areas 2 and 5 together, 22% of the neurons were activated by the auditory cue that signalled the beginning of a trial. Virtually all of these cells were also activated during the arm movements required by the(More)
The T(X;Y)V7 rearrangement in Drosophila has originally been recognized as a Shaker-like mutant because of its behavioral and electrophysiological phenotype. The gene whose expression is altered by the V7 rearrangement has been characterized. It encodes a novel Ca(2+)-binding protein named frequenin, which is related to recoverin and visinin. In vitro, the(More)
The membrane bound guanylyl cyclase (GC) photoreceptor membrane GC1 (ROS-GCI) of photoreceptor cells synthesizes cGMP, the intracellular transmitter of vertebrate phototransduction. The activity of ROS-GCI is controlled by small Ca(2+)-binding proteins, named GC-activating proteins (GCAPs). We identified and characterized two short regulatory regions(More)
Rod outer segment guanylate cyclase 1 (ROS-GC1) is a member of the subfamily of Ca(2+)-regulated membrane guanylate cyclases; and it is pivotal for vertebrate phototransduction. Two opposing regulatory modes control the activity of ROS-GC1. At nanomolar concentrations of Ca(2+), ROS-GC1 is activated by Ca(2+)-binding proteins named guanylate cyclase(More)
Electrophysiological recordings on retinal rod cells, horizontal cells and on-bipolar cells indicate that exogenous nitric oxide (NO) has neuromodulatory effects in the vertebrate retina. We report here endogenous NO formation in mammalian photoreceptor cells. Photoreceptor NO synthase resembled the neuronal NOS type I from mammalian brain. NOS activity(More)
The assembly of signalling molecules into macromolecular complexes (transducisomes) provides specificity, sensitivity and speed in intracellular signalling pathways. Rod photoreceptors in the eye contain an unusual set of glutamic-acid-rich proteins (GARPs) of unknown function. GARPs exist as two soluble forms, GARP1 and GARP2, and as a large cytoplasmic(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) controls the activity of the rod cGMP-gated ion channel by decreasing the apparent cGMP affinity. We have examined the mechanism of this modulation using electrophysiological and biochemical techniques. Heteromeric channels, consisting of alpha- and beta-subunits, display a high CaM sensitivity (EC50 </=5 nM) similar to the native channel.(More)
Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) are Ca(2+)-binding proteins with a fatty acid (mainly myristic acid) that is covalently attached at the N terminus. Myristoylated forms of GCAP were produced in E. coli by coexpression of yeast N-myristoyl-transferase. Proteins with nearly 100% degree of myristoylation were obtained after chromatography on a(More)
Rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase1 (ROS-GC1) is the original member of the membrane guanylate cyclase subfamily whose distinctive feature is that it transduces diverse intracellularly generated Ca(2+) signals in the sensory neurons. In the vertebrate retinal neurons, ROS-GC1 is pivotal for the operations of phototransduction and, most likely, of(More)