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Visual excitation in retinal rod cells is mediated by a cascade that leads to the amplified hydrolysis of cyclic GMP (cGMP) and the consequent closure of cGMP-activated cation-specific channels in the plasma membrane. Recovery of the dark state requires the resynthesis of cGMP, which is catalysed by guanylate cyclase, an axoneme-associated enzyme. The(More)
The neural responses of 456 single units were recorded in parietal cortex of behaving monkeys during a haptic delayed matching-to-sample task. (1) In areas 2 and 5 together, 22% of the neurons were activated by the auditory cue that signalled the beginning of a trial. Virtually all of these cells were also activated during the arm movements required by the(More)
The T(X;Y)V7 rearrangement in Drosophila has originally been recognized as a Shaker-like mutant because of its behavioral and electrophysiological phenotype. The gene whose expression is altered by the V7 rearrangement has been characterized. It encodes a novel Ca(2+)-binding protein named frequenin, which is related to recoverin and visinin. In vitro, the(More)
Electrophysiological recordings on retinal rod cells, horizontal cells and on-bipolar cells indicate that exogenous nitric oxide (NO) has neuromodulatory effects in the vertebrate retina. We report here endogenous NO formation in mammalian photoreceptor cells. Photoreceptor NO synthase resembled the neuronal NOS type I from mammalian brain. NOS activity(More)
The assembly of signalling molecules into macromolecular complexes (transducisomes) provides specificity, sensitivity and speed in intracellular signalling pathways. Rod photoreceptors in the eye contain an unusual set of glutamic-acid-rich proteins (GARPs) of unknown function. GARPs exist as two soluble forms, GARP1 and GARP2, and as a large cytoplasmic(More)
The membrane bound guanylyl cyclase (GC) photoreceptor membrane GC1 (ROS-GCI) of photoreceptor cells synthesizes cGMP, the intracellular transmitter of vertebrate phototransduction. The activity of ROS-GCI is controlled by small Ca(2+)-binding proteins, named GC-activating proteins (GCAPs). We identified and characterized two short regulatory regions(More)
Recoverin, a new calcium binding protein from bovine rod photoreceptor cells, activates guanylyl cyclase below a free calcium concentration of 200 nM. We show here that recoverin is phosphorylated by an endogenous kinase and Mg-ATP at the same decreased calcium concentration. The calcium-dependent activation of guanylyl cyclase is enhanced in the presence(More)
Recoverin is a neuronal calcium sensor protein that plays a crucial role in vertebrate phototransduction. It undergoes a Ca(2+)-myristoyl switch when Ca(2+) binds to its two functional EF-hand motifs (EF-hands 2 and 3), each present in one of recoverin's two domains. Impairment of Ca(2+)-binding in recoverin leads to a disturbance of the Ca(2+)-myristoyl(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) controls the activity of the rod cGMP-gated ion channel by decreasing the apparent cGMP affinity. We have examined the mechanism of this modulation using electrophysiological and biochemical techniques. Heteromeric channels, consisting of alpha- and beta-subunits, display a high CaM sensitivity (EC50 </=5 nM) similar to the native channel.(More)