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Prostaglandin (PG) E2 release is induced in pulmonary A549 cells by the NF-kappaB-activating stimuli interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Adenoviral over-expression of IkappaBalphaDeltaN, a dominant NF-kappaB inhibitor, prevents NF-kappaB-dependent transcription and was used to qualify the role of NF-kappaB in the release(More)
Protective immunity against influenza virus infection is mediated by neutralizing antibodies, but the precise role of T cells in human influenza immunity is uncertain. We conducted influenza infection studies in healthy volunteers with no detectable antibodies to the challenge viruses H3N2 or H1N1. We mapped T cell responses to influenza before and during(More)
IL-10 is an important immunosuppressive cytokine that can down-regulate expression of other cytokines and has been shown to down-regulate itself. We show, in this study, that treatment of human monocyte-derived macrophages with IL-10 induces IL-10 mRNA in a dose- and time-dependent manner with an optimum induction at 100 ng/ml and at 6 h, whereas(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease involving diverse cells and mediators whose interconnectivity and relationships to asthma severity are unclear. OBJECTIVE We performed a comprehensive assessment of TH17 cells, regulatory T cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, other T-cell subsets, and granulocyte mediators in asthmatic(More)
Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a Th2 cytokine, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic diseases such as asthma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), costimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or activating antibodies to the CD3 and CD28 T-lymphocyte surface markers, produced similar patterns of IL-5(More)
BACKGROUND Studies with monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and animal models have suggested a role for alternatively activated (M2) macrophages in asthmatic inflammation, but in vivo evidence for this phenotype in human asthma is lacking. OBJECTIVE To characterize the phenotype of lung macrophages from asthmatic patients in relation to disease severity(More)
T lymphocytes of the Th2 type are central orchestrators of airway inflammation in asthma. The mechanisms that regulate their accumulation in the asthmatic airways remains poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that CCR4, preferentially expressed on T lymphocytes of the Th2 type, plays a critical role in this process. We enumerated by flow cytometry the(More)
BACKGROUND Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that can degrade the extracellular matrix and drive tissue remodelling, key processes in the pathogenesis of COPD. The development of small airway disease has been identified as a critical mechanism in the early development of airflow obstruction but the contribution of MMPs in human(More)
Six major lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis appear preferentially transmitted amongst distinct ethnic groups. We identified a deletion affecting Rv1519 in CH, a strain isolated from a large outbreak in Leicester U.K., that coincidentally defines the East African-Indian lineage matching a major ethnic group in this city. In broth media, CH grew less(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that prolonged severe hypoxia during monocyte to macrophage differentiation results in macrophages with a pattern of gene expression and phenotype distinct from those maturing in normal oxygen levels. Macrophages accumulate in hypoxic and anoxic areas within pathological sites such as tumours, wounds, and arthritic joints,(More)