Learn More
Prostaglandin (PG) E2 release is induced in pulmonary A549 cells by the NF-kappaB-activating stimuli interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Adenoviral over-expression of IkappaBalphaDeltaN, a dominant NF-kappaB inhibitor, prevents NF-kappaB-dependent transcription and was used to qualify the role of NF-kappaB in the release(More)
Protective immunity against influenza virus infection is mediated by neutralizing antibodies, but the precise role of T cells in human influenza immunity is uncertain. We conducted influenza infection studies in healthy volunteers with no detectable antibodies to the challenge viruses H3N2 or H1N1. We mapped T cell responses to influenza before and during(More)
IL-10 is an important immunosuppressive cytokine that can down-regulate expression of other cytokines and has been shown to down-regulate itself. We show, in this study, that treatment of human monocyte-derived macrophages with IL-10 induces IL-10 mRNA in a dose- and time-dependent manner with an optimum induction at 100 ng/ml and at 6 h, whereas(More)
Six major lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis appear preferentially transmitted amongst distinct ethnic groups. We identified a deletion affecting Rv1519 in CH, a strain isolated from a large outbreak in Leicester U.K., that coincidentally defines the East African-Indian lineage matching a major ethnic group in this city. In broth media, CH grew less(More)
Monocyte heterogeneity has been studied extensively in man but only recently tools have been developed to study blood monocyte populations in the mouse. We have used the MacGreen mouse model, which expresses the green fluorescent protein under the control of the promoter of the murine M-CSF receptor (CSF1 receptor, c-fms). Since both monocytes and(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease involving diverse cells and mediators whose interconnectivity and relationships to asthma severity are unclear. OBJECTIVE We performed a comprehensive assessment of TH17 cells, regulatory T cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, other T-cell subsets, and granulocyte mediators in asthmatic(More)
BACKGROUND Incomplete understanding of mechanisms and clinicopathobiological heterogeneity in asthma hinders research progress. Pathogenic roles for T-helper-type 17 (Th17) cells and invariant T cells implied by murine data have yet to be assessed in man. We aimed to investigate the role of Th17 and mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in airway(More)
BACKGROUND Studies with monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and animal models have suggested a role for alternatively activated (M2) macrophages in asthmatic inflammation, but in vivo evidence for this phenotype in human asthma is lacking. OBJECTIVE To characterize the phenotype of lung macrophages from asthmatic patients in relation to disease severity(More)
IL-5 is implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and is predominantly released from T lymphocytes of the Th2 phenotype. In anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28-stimulated PBMC, albuterol, isoproterenol, rolipram, PGE2, forskolin, cholera toxin, and the cAMP analog, 8-bromoadenosine cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) all inhibited the release of IL-5 and lymphocyte proliferation. Although(More)
T lymphocytes of the Th2 type are central orchestrators of airway inflammation in asthma. The mechanisms that regulate their accumulation in the asthmatic airways remains poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that CCR4, preferentially expressed on T lymphocytes of the Th2 type, plays a critical role in this process. We enumerated by flow cytometry the(More)